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Первые попытки описания устройства Вселенной-Мира (работа 1)




Первые попытки описания устройства Вселенной-Мира

Все накопленные веками знания о природе вплоть до технического и житейского опыта были объединены, систематизированы, логически предельно развиты в первой универсальной картине мира, которую создал в IV в. до н. э. величайший древнегреческий философ (и, по существу, первый физик) Аристотель (384—322 гг. до н. э.), большую часть жизни проведший в Афинах, где он основал свою знаменитую научную школу.

Биографическая справка. Аристотель является главным представителем греческой философской традиции, которая выработала утверждение о познаваемости природы. Это утверждение и в настоящее время является первопричиной любой науки, в противовес идеям, что природа находится под управлением богов (иногда очень причудливых), которые требуют умиротворения, а не познания. Аристотель сформировал свой взгляд на вселенную на основании интуитивного ощущения целостной гармонии. Основой для этой философии являлось понятие телеологии или финального случая. Он предполагал, что как отдельный объект (например, падающая скала), так и системы (например, движение планет), подчиняются в своем поведении некоторому всеобщему плану или судьбе. Это было особенно явным для живых систем, где компоненты функционируют на основе тесной кооперации, чтобы достичь конечной цели или конечного результата. Аристотель считался величайшим мыслителем своего времени. Однако с тех времен ни сам Аристотель, ни кто-нибудь еще не придумал, что хорошо бы проверить теории экспериментом - эти идеи люди упорно защищали в течение почти 2000 лет. На заре своего существования Христианская Церковь включила эти идеи в свое понятие Создателя, и таким образом Аристотелева физическая концепция мира была узаконена. Бросить вызов этим идеям было под церковным запретом в течение почти всех Средних веков, которая монополизировала право на идеи и истину. Когда эксперименты Галилея привели его к противоречию с воззрениями Аристотеля, он был подвергнут пыткам, как еретик, так как экспериментальные результаты считались менее убедительными по сравнению с руководством Аристотеля.

Это было учение о структуре, свойствах и движении всего, что входит в понятие природы. Вместе с тем, Аристотель впервые отделил мир земных (вернее, «подлунных») явлений от мира небесного, от собственно Космоса с его якобы особенными законами и природой объектов. В специальном трактате «О небе» Аристотель нарисовал свою натурфилософскую физическую, вернее, физико-космологическую картину мира. Под Вселенной Аристотель подразумевал всю существующую материю (состоявшую, по его теории, из четырех обычных элементов — земли, воды, воздуха и огня и пятого — небесного — вечно движущегося эфира, который от обычной материи отличался еще и тем, что не имел ни легкости, ни тяжести). Аристотель критиковал Анаксагора за отождествление эфира с обычным материальным элементом — огнем. Таким образом, Вселенная, по Аристотелю, существовала в единственном числе. В картине мира Аристотеля впервые была высказана идея взаимосвязанности свойств материи, пространства и времени. Вселенная представлялась конечной и ограничивалась сферой, за пределами которой не мыслилось ничего материального, а потому не могло быть и самого пространства, поскольку оно определялось как нечто, что было (или могло быть) заполнено материей. За пределами материальной Вселенной не существовало и времени, которое Аристотель с гениальной простотой и четкостью определил как меру движения и связал с материей, пояснив, что «нет движения без тела физического». За пределами материальной Вселенной Аристотель помещал нематериальный, духовный мир божества, существование которого постулировалось. Поскольку шарообразность Вселенной была «видна», что называется, простым глазом — в общей кажущейся форме небосвода и круговом суточном движении небесных светил, то в такой ограниченной Вселенной обязательно должен был существовать центр — как особая точка, равноудаленная от периферии. В пределах этой Вселенной свойства тел Аристотель считал врожденными и связанными с геометрией Вселенной, с ее сферичностью. Таким образом, центральное положение Земли следовало из общих свойств Вселенной: самый тяжелый элемент — «земля», в основном составляющий земной шар, не мог не быть всегда в центре мира. В подлунном мире, кроме того, врожденно тяжелым элементом считалась вода, а легкими — воздух и огонь. Проявление этих качеств состояло в стремлении одних тел двигаться вверх, в направлении к периферии Вселенной, а других, напротив, вниз, к центру мира. (Эти движения он называл «естественными», в отличие от «насильственных», происходящих под действием механической силы и, как считал Аристотель, прекращающихся с прекращением действия сил.) В надлунном мире единственный небесный элемент — эфир, не имевший свойств легкости и тяжести, естественно находился в вечном круговом движении в мировом пространстве. Из него состояли, по Аристотелю, и все небесные тела, идеально сферической формы, скрепленные каждое со своей сферой из того же эфира, с которыми они вместе и двигались по небу. Даже наиболее очевидное направление движений небесных тел — с востока на запад — Аристотель считал естественным свойством их и, не зная его причины, сформулировал в качестве объяснения один из основных универсальных принципов природы: «природа всегда осуществляет наилучшую из всех возможностей» (зародыш современных экстремальных принципов, таких как, например, принцип наименьшего действия). Крайней, наиболее удаленной, восьмой сферой считалась сфера звезд. Именно потому, что ее движение (суточное) непосредственно наблюдалось, Аристотель заключил, что Вселенная должна быть конечной и ограниченной (иначе, в случае бесконечной удаленности сферы звезд, ее движение было бы неощутимо для наблюдателя, находящегося в центре мира). Вместе с тем, Аристотель сделал вывод о неподвижности звезд относительно своей сферы на том основании, что все они в своем суточном движении вокруг Земли имели скорость, одинаковую со скоростью различных частей звездной сферы. Между тем разные части сферы — у экватора и у полюса, например, двигались с разной скоростью (речь идет о линейной круговой скорости). Такое полное совпадение скоростей у звезд и у сферы, будь они независимы, справедливо представлялось Аристотелю невероятным. О том, что звезды к тому же и не вращаются, он сделал вывод на основании того, что Луна (одна из «звезд», по терминологии Аристотеля, но особых, блуждающих) всегда повернута к Земле одной стороной. Вообще же блуждающие звезды — планеты — из-за их неправильных сложных движений Аристотель относил к менее совершенным телам, чем «верхние» звезды. Относительно природы звезд до Аристотеля высказывались идеи, что это раскаленные тела, нагревающиеся в результате трения о воздух при движении (весьма стремительном, учитывая удаленность последней, звездной сферы неба). Так думал, например, Анаксагор. Как физик, Аристотель не мог отрицать факта разогрева при таком движении. Он писал, что «движение раскаляет даже дерево, камни и железо». В последних двух примерах, возможно, нашли отголосок и наблюдения падения метеоритов. Однако сам Аристотель приводит другой пример - «метательные снаряды», которые раскаляются так, что «плавятся свинцовые ядра». Но по Аристотелю, тепло и свет, особенно при восходе и подъеме Солнца, возникали не от трения звезд, поскольку звезды были неподвижными в пределах своей сферы, а самих сфер друг о друга. Здесь Аристотель, спасая всю систему в целом, снова отступал от более здравой идеи Анаксагора.

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Звезды и планеты Аристотель называет огромными телами, тогда как Землю он считал небольшой (на основании быстрого изменения звездного неба во время передвижения по ее поверхности). Приведенная им оценка ее окружности (400 тыс. стадиев, или более 70 тыс. км) самая древняя из известных. Более точные оценки (40 тыс. км) получали после Аристотеля в IIIII вв. до н. э. Архимед, Эратосфен, Гиппарх. Наконец, все сферы во Вселенной Аристотель считал довольно жестко связанными между собой (как в некотором механизме) и, опять же из наблюдений, из одинаковости угловой скорости суточного вращения всех сфер, сделал вывод, что только правильное пропорциональное возрастание их скоростей (линейных, выражаясь современным языком) с ростом удаленности сфер от центра мира обеспечивает устойчивость, прочность неба, которое благодаря этому «не разваливается» (хотя, как мы видели, и несколько разогревается от внутренних трений). Таким образом, космическая система Аристотеля для его современников была, можно сказать, теорией, опиравшейся на опыт, как он понимался тогда, т. е. на полное доверие к весьма грубым повседневным наблюдениям. Например, древнюю уже и для него идею пифагорейцев о «музыке сфер» Аристотель высмеивал как абсурдную потому, что в этом случае (т. е. если бы небесные тела двигались внутри своих сфер), как он знал из «техники», стоял бы невообразимый шум и скрежет от трущихся частей. Отсутствие же шума Аристотель считал как раз доказательством того, что звезды бесшумно «едут» на сферах, подобно вещам на корабле. Но наряду с этими наивными рассуждениями Аристотель включил в свою систему и вполне обоснованные астрономическими наблюдениями заключения, прежде всего о шарообразности Земли. Он считал, кроме того, что она свободно парит в пространстве, и в связи с этим резко высмеивал примитивные идеи о том, что Земля уходит своими «корнями» в бесконечность (Ксенофан Колофонский, VI в. до н. э.) или что она плавает на воде (Фалес Милетский, VI в. до н. э.), что она, имея якобы форму невысокого цилиндра, держится на сжатом воздухе. (Последнее предположение, — по существу, древнейшая идея «воздушной подушки» — было высказано в том же VI в. до н, э. Анаксименом, а позднее Анаксагором и Демокритом.) Аристотель называл «притянутой за уши» и весьма произвольную картину Вселенной пифагорейцев — с центральным огнем, вокруг которого движется Земля, отстоящая якобы от центра мира ровно на половину своего диаметра, вместе с невидимой нам «Антиземлей» по другую сторону того же «огня». Таким образом, Земля оказывалась движущейся, но не вокруг Солнца, а вокруг центрального огня — «гестии», зеркальным отражением которого от небесной сферы (как полагал Эмпедокл) и представлялось Солнце. Но вместе с нелепыми или искусственными построениями своих предшественников Аристотель отбросил и правильные догадки о вращении Земли как вокруг некоего центра, так и вокруг своей оси (Платон, Гераклид Понтийский), поскольку это вращение не ощущалось в повседневном опыте. Неподвижность Земли в центре мира (вопреки противоположной идее некоторых более ранних философов) Аристотель просто постулировал, чтобы обосновать реальность суточного вращения всего небосвода («если Земля неподвижна, то небо движется»). Таким образом, он учитывал уже известный древним грекам кинематический принцип относительности движения. По учению Аристотеля, Вселенная никогда не возникала и принципиально неуничтожима, она вечна, поскольку единственна и объемлет всю возможную материю (ей не из чего возникнуть и не во что превратиться). Аристотель правильно критиковал за нелогичность теории своих предшественников о возможности возникновения Вселенной, которая в дальнейшем становится вечной, равно как и теории Эмпедокла (V в. до н. э.) и Гераклита Эфесского (VI в. до н. э.) о бессчетном повторении возникновения и уничтожения Вселенной в целом. (Эта последняя идея была характерна и для древнеиндийской философии.) Если «вся телесная материя, будучи непрерывной, попеременно меняет свои состояния и упорядочивается то так, то иначе, а совокупно сочетание целого остается «космосом»,— писал Аристотель, — ...то отсюда следует, что возникает и уничтожается не космос, а его состояния». Эта глубокая идея весьма злободневна в наши дни, когда человечеству приходится осваивать новую космологическую концепцию — «горячей Вселенной», которую, кстати, так же необоснованно порой распространяют на «всю Вселенную».Аристотель критиковал и атомистов, отрицая возможность возникновения всех тел с их качествами из полностью бескачественных атомов лишь благодаря их механическому движению.

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Поскольку прямолинейные движения имеют конец и начало, а небесные тела безостановочно движутся по кругу в течение всей долгой истории их наблюдения человеком, то из этого Аристотель заключил, что для небесных тел, которые не обладают ни легкостью, ни тяжестью, естественным является именно круговое, вечное, к тому же равномерное движение. Последнее постулировалось как признак совершенства небесных тел. Кстати, Аристотель отдавал себе отчет в том, что у бесконечной Вселенной не могло бы быть ни центра, ни края и никакого всеобщего внутреннего движения относительно одной точки. Но все наблюдения и ощущения свидетельствовали (по этим признакам) против бесконечности Вселенной, что и привело Аристотеля, который, прежде всего, был физиком-экспериментатором (точнее, наблюдателем), к выводу о ее конечности. Стремясь очистить физическую картину мира от донаучного мифологического (антропоморфного) элемента и объяснить все явления не субъективными, волевыми, а естественными, объективными причинами, Аристотель резко критиковал древние учения, согласно которым небо и небесные тела, чтобы не упасть на Землю, должны были опираться на плечи могучих героев Атлантов. «Эту басню,— как писал Аристотель,— сочинили те, кто думал, что все небесные тела имеют тяжесть и состоят из земли» (т. е. из элемента «земля»). Здесь природа сыграла с философом злую шутку. Выступив против якобы примитивных аналогий и экстраполяции, Аристотель вместе с мифическим элементом — формой древних учений — выбросил из физической картины мира и глубоко верную, хотя и опиравшуюся лишь на простую аналогию, догадку о вещественном единстве Вселенной и о тяжести небесных тел, о единстве действующих во Вселенной Законов. В надлунном мире Аристотеля не было места не только тяжелым телам, но и каким-либо силам: движение небесных тел мыслилось как бессиловое. По существу, это было первое представление об инерциальном движении, которое понималось еще в течение двух тысячелетий после Аристотеля (включая Галилея) как движение круговое.

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Напротив, сравнительно кратковременные явления были перенесены Аристотелем в несовершенный подлунный мир, в верхние слои воздуха, земной атмосферы, распространявшейся, по представлениям Аристотеля, до Луны! Это были падающие звезды, болиды, метеориты, кометы, называвшиеся «огненными метеорами». Модель Вселенной у Аристотеля была именно механической, т. е. представляла Вселенную как набор якобы существующих «материальных» сфер (хотя и из особой «неземной» материи—эфира). С течением времени это привело к еще большему огрублению картины. Сферы стали представлять как твердые, хрустальные и т. п. Но это было уже в средние века. Для современников Аристотеля его физико-космологическая картина по своей полноте, логичности, увязанности с доступным опытом и наблюдениями была несравненно выше разрозненных, расплывчатых, порой внутренне противоречивых идей его предшественников. Она стала первым организующим, хотя в то же время ограничивающим фактором на пути дальнейшего развития науки. В ее рамках формировались в течение всей дальнейшей истории развития древнегреческой науки, занявшей более чем полтысячелетия, частные, или локальные собственно астрономические картины мира. И когда столетие спустя появилась гениальная и совершенно новая, революционная идея подлинного гелиоцентризма, высказанная Аристархом Самосским (он считал, в отличие от ранних пифагорейцев, Солнце неподвижным в центре мира, а Землю обращающейся вокруг него и вращающейся вокруг своей оси), эта идея была встречена крайне враждебно не только по религиозным соображениям, но и как противоречащая «здравому смыслу». Догматизированная в средневековой Европе, как и на арабском Востоке, аристотелевская картина мира сдерживала развитие астрономии вплоть до эпохи Галилея. Подведем итог описанию аристотелевской физико-космологической картины мира. Ее первым элементом (представлением о материальной основе мира) было учение о пяти первичных формах материи с разделением их на «земные» (четыре стихии с врожденными качествами тяжести и легкости) и «небесную» (не имеющий этих качеств, а также и состояния покоя эфир). Вторым элементом, или представлением о механизме осуществления всех процессов, т. е. движений во Вселенной, выступали различные «естественные», врожденные движения первоэлементов и состоящих из них тел, причем эти движения объяснялись свойствами неразрывного комплекса — пространства и материи. Его замкнутость и сферичность делали Вселенную неоднородной и анизотропной, с крайним разделением свойств центральной и периферийных областей, что определяло движение тел — одних к центру, других от него. Третий элемент картины мира у Аристотеля имел явно астрономический, космологический характер — модель Вселенной. Как физик-экспериментатор (имевший в своем распоряжении лишь данные весьма грубого повседневного опыта и наблюдения) Аристотель выбрал более распространенную и подтверждавшуюся непосредственными ощущениями геоцентрическую модель — в виде конструкции из гомоцентрических сфер. Лишь материал небесных тел и сфер предполагался у него особым, небесным (эфиром). Такие модели, хотя и имели целью объяснение видимых движений небесных тел, но объясняли их лишь качественно, не позволяя теоретически определять, например, положение тел на небе. Последнее стало возможным лишь с появлением математических (геометрических) методов описания неравномерных видимых движений и, соответственно, с появлением новых, более простых геометрических моделей движения светил.

Список литературы

Для подготовки данной работы были использованы материалы с сайта http://www.astrogalaxy.ru/

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