1. Classification of facilities of placing of tourists. Modern national systems of classifications
Hospitality service – one of the importante part of tourists business. Function of hotels:
Facilities of placing of tourists are any objects which give tourists a temporal or regular place for spending the night (usually in an apartment).
Accordingly all facilities of placing can be presented two categories – community facilities of placing:
– individual facilities of placing. (DSTU)
In Ukraine as well as in majority of the world in the last years the developed classification of hotels on the level of comfort.
The level of comfort of hotels is determined them technical rigging, composition and quality of containing a number fund, by the set of services and others like that.
Today about 30 different national systems of classifications of hotels operate in the world (system of stars (*) from 1 to 5; system of letters – And, In, С; system «crowns», or «keys», «diamonds» and others like that, which can be united in two basic groups: European type the French national system and Asiatic type (ball) is fixed in basis of which, basis of which is the Indian national system. In україні classification operates by system of stars. Hotels and analogical facilities of placing are divided into 5 categories (stars).
A category of «one*» is a low category for hotels.
A category of «five*» is a high category for hotels.
The State national standards, in which minimum requirements are certain in relation to rigging, qualification of personnel and grant of services, are developed in Ukraine. (for example).
Depending on the functional setting of hotels Ukraine divided into a few types:
– general type;
– for sportsmen;
– for transients;
– for conferences (hotels of congress)
So far in Ukraine most widespread are hotels of general type, which are counted on people which arrive with business aims on relatively short space, and also for citizens which travel with the personal aims. Such hotels as a rule are in central part of city, near-by administrative, shopping centers. The containing a number fund of hotels of general type consists mainly of one -, two and partly three – four numbers depending on a category,
Tourist hotels are intended for tourists. Depending on the type of active rest they are also differentiated:
for motor-car tourists
for water tourism
for mountain tourism
for youth tourism and others like that.
The feature of tourist hotels consists in that in them present apartments of tourist service, and also methodical and instructor (for methodical work of instructors with groups) cabinets.
One of many types of tourist hotels are hotels for motor-car tourists. Except for buildings with housings numbers, restaurant and other apartments of the public use, these hotels are given by possibility of parking and technical maintenance of motor transport (fillings stations), repair shops or technical service stations.
Hotels for motor-car tourists are also divided into a few types:
Motels are disposed on motorways, before an entrance in cities and also in those places which bring over to itself tourists. Motels, as a rule, small – 20–30 numbers. They provide comprehensive maintenance of guests, and also stand, prophylaxis and repair of cars. (classification from * to to ****)
Camping (from engl. of «camp» is a camp) – shows by itself the enterprise of hotel type for seasonal exploitation and it is intended for rest of motor-car tourists and parking them vehicles. All of types of service are simplified: berths placing in buildings of summer type, often in wooden without heating tents; sanitary knots in majorities general, sometimes there are the fillings stations and workshops of repair of cars at campsites. Campsites are accessible for the wide circle of tourists. They provide good and comparatively cheap rest.
The variety of camping is Rotel. He is intended for travelling on cars with treyler. Treyler is set in the specially taken place, connected to technical communications. Rotelі dispose on approaches to the cities or in picturesque places.
Hotel complexes are for water tourism. Placing of establishments of placing for water tourism conditioned dividing of tourist route into areas: initial, transit and eventual.
For the hotel complexes of water tourism characteristic combination of functions, which provide terms for spending the night, rest of tourists, and also for a stand, technical service and storage of floating facilities.
Distinguish the followings hotel complexes of water tourism:
Botels are establishments which are located on a birch in the initial or eventual areas of route through a 150–200 km These establishments consist of housings corps of hotel type with the system of cultural and welfare service and mean of technical maintenance of плавзасобів. Areas of Botel must be equipped harbour. Botels function during a year.
Botokemping – show by itself summer seasonal townships, intended for maintenance of tourists of water tourism in a hike. They have stationary buildings of technical maintenance of floating facilities and disposed enroute through a 70–100 km
Flotel is a floating motel, which serves tourists which travel by water. He consists of floating corps of the different setting and takes place enroute through a 50 km In winter флотель use as a hotel within the limits of city.
Hotels are for mountain tourism. These hotels are disposed, as a rule, in housing mountain locality. Their architecture must answer a natural environment. Ukrainian Carpathians are famous the facilities placing for tourists, which are engaged in the mountain types of sport. They, as a rule, built taking into account national traditions and local colour.
Hotels are for youth tourism. They are oriented to the tourists in age from 16 to 35 years. So as a youth contingent differs aspiring to the active kinds of rest and low enough requirement in a comfort, in hotels prevail three -, four-set numbers, but as a rule, developed block of apartments of cultural and mass service. Today widespread in the world is «Khostels».
The main difference of Khostels (from ordinary hotels) consists both in the inexpensive dwelling and in the special sincerity and democratic atmosphere from the side of workers which work in them. Khostel of the Template institute of economy and tourism always glad to welcome students and other young tourists in the walls.
Resort hotels. Setting for in relation to of long duration rest on one place, sometimes with possibility of prophylactic treatment. They are disposed on seashores, near-by medical sources, in mountain locality. resort hotels have the extended composition of apartments of cultural and mass service, building of the sporting setting. A containing a number fund consists mainly of one and two-set numbers.
There are hotels. Take place at sporting complexes and in places which on natural terms suitable for the certain type of sport. In hotels there must be the foreseen apartments, intended for storage and delivery on a rental basis to sporting an inventory; halls for trainings, honey cabinets, and also developed composition of apartments, for rest.
Hotels are for transients. Intended for a short stay in them of passengers in connection with expectation of transplantation on other type of transport, and also for rest of personnel which serves a transport. These facilities are at air terminals, bus terminals and others like that. Numbers in such hotels can be less sizes.
Hotels are for conferences. Got large distribution abroad. Sometimes they are named by the «hotels» of congress, and also hotels for business people are «business-hotels». As a rule it is hotels of high level of comfort and service, which have a wide set of apartments of the public setting.
2. Functional organization of buildings of facilities of placing
Functional organization of building be what hotel complex foremost depends on as a hotel and its capacity. The capacity of hotels is determined the number of permanent berths. In Ukraine official differentiation of hotels is not accepted after a capacity, but the following gradation is widespread: to 100 places – hotels of small capacity, from 101 to 500 places, – middle capacity; more than 500 places – large capacity.
A modern hotel of middle and large capacity and high level of comfort is a difficult complex object considerable кількість of apartments of the different functional setting is included in composition of which:
– housings apartments
– reception and service
– restaurant economy
– apartment of the cultural and mass setting
– domestic consumer services
– administrative, official
– economic, subsidiary, technical but other
In composition of some hotels apartments include also for business contacts (conference halls), business-centers, кіноконцертні halls, pools, saunas, gymnasia, bowling-alleys, apartment for organizations of exhibitions, trade enterprise, and others like that.
3. Basic blocks of apartments of facilities of placing
The main functional apartments of the developed hotel building is:
block receiving-auxiliary apartments;
block of apartments of housing group;
block of apartments of feed;
block of apartments of administration;
block of utility and economic rooms
All of the transferred blocks must be взаємопов'язані between itself recognition the specific of functional process. Depending on as a hotel additional blocks can be included in its structure.
The main unifying link of all of groups of apartments is a block receiving-auxiliary apartments from вестибулем. He makes the first impression about a hotel. Place is taken in this block: reception, registration and placing of tourists, calculation, with them, grant of different information about a hotel, storage and transporting of luggage, and others like that.
A block of apartments of housing group is basic in hotels be which to the type. These apartments are made by a more than 50% volume of building and show by itself housings rooms – numbers, and also auxiliary and official apartments are directly related to them.
A hotel number includes for itself almost all of elements of habitation of man – here must be a place for rest and sleep, work, guest reception. There is an antechamber in him, closet for clothes, bath – room. Numbers take place on housings floors, where apartments are also for a duty personnel which serves these apartments. Block of group of apartments of restaurant economy. Functional organization of this group of apartments decides taking into account the category of hotel. All personnel which serves the group of apartments of restaurant economy must have a private entrance in a hotel with the, by shower-baths, bath – rooms, rooms of rest and administrative apartments.
The block of apartments of administration is disposed, as a rule, on the ground or second floor of hotel. The apartments of administration must have comfortable connection with the blocks of reception apartments, dwellings and apartments of feed.
The block of apartments of cultural and welfare service is foreseen mainly in tourist and resort hotels. The block of this group of apartments consists of visual hall, ball-room, library, billiard and guest rooms but other
In hotels with the high level of comfort a block is foreseen also apartments, where enter: universal hall for the leadthrough of congresses and other measures, display hall (salon) for organization of exhibitions, sauna with a bar and hall of sporting trainers, massage hall, hall of playing automats and others like that.
A block of utility and economic rooms is in hotels be which to the type. It is an apartment of auxiliary personnel, various domestic workshops, compositions, linen.
4. Types of numbers
On the National standard of Ukraine
– A presidential suite (англ. of Presidential of apartament) of rooms is a number of housing type, which more housings rooms (a bedroom, guest room, cabinet, apartment, is for the leadthrough of conferences) consist of 4 and mini are kitchens with a dining-room; one complete bath – room and one or more additional bath – rooms (for guests), counted on dwelling of 1 – 2 persons.
– suite of rooms (apartament) – number of housing type, which consists of 3 more housings rooms (bedroom, guest room, cabinet), to the mine-kitchen, one complete and one additional bath – room (for guests), counted on dwelling of 1 – 2 persons;
– bitone – is (duplex) a two-storeyed number which consists of 2 and more dwellings with an internal stationary stair, complete bath – room, counted on dwelling of 1 – 2 persons;
– the first class (suite) – is a number which consists of 2 more housings rooms (bedroom, guest room/cabinet);
– first semiclass, studio (junior suite, studio) – number which consists of one housing room, from plan, that allows to use part of apartment as hall/dinner – room/kabinet, and also complete, bath – room counted on 1 – 2 persons.
– first category – a number, which consists of one housing room, complete bath – room, is counted on dwelling of 1 – 2 persons.
– second category – a number which consists of one housing room and incomplete bath – room is counted on 1 – 2 persons;
– third category – a number which consists of one housing room and incomplete bath – room is counted more than 3 persons;
– fourth category – a number which consists of one housing room and wash – stand is counted more than 3 persons;
– fifth category – a number which consists of one housing room and without touilet room is counted more than 3 persons;
– contiguous numbers (complex) (complex) – 2 and more numbers which are connected by between itself doors can have a general antechamber, general or independent bath – room;
– single-seat number (SNGL), (singl room) – a number which is intended for placing of a 1 person is equipped a single bed;
– two-place number (DBL), (double room) – a number, intended for placing of 2 persons, is equipped a double bed or two single beds which are near each other;
– two-place number (TWN), (twin room) – is a number, intended for placing of 2 persons on two separate beds;
– three-seater number (TRPL), (triple room) – a number, intended for placing 3 and more persons, is equipped single beds after number of resident;
– a multi-seater number (multiple bedded room) – is a number, intended for placing 4 and more persons, equipped single beds after number of resident.
2.5 Services of hotel complexes, description and setting
Basic services of hotels of Ukraine
administrative and managerial service
service of reception and placing
service of maintenance of containing a number fund
service of restaurant
engeneering – technical service
auxiliary and additional services;
Administrative service is responsible for organization of management of hotel complex all of services, decides financial questions, questions of the skilled providing, engaged in creation and support of necessary terms of labour for the personnel of hotel, controls the observance of the set norms and rules of labour protection, to accident, ecological safety, prevention and others like that.
Composition of service: a director, secretariat, skilled service, financial service, inspectors, is from fire-prevention safety and accident prevention.
Service of reception and placing is engaged in the decision of questions of the numbers guest, their register reception related to reserving this and placing in numbers, by the grant of various services, and also sending, home.
Composition of service: manager from placing, service of administrators, портьє, operator of the mechanized calculation, workers of passport and certificate tables, door-keepers, transmitters, service of safety and others like that.
Service of maintenance of containing a number fund provides maintenance of tourists in numbers, supports the necessary sanitary state of numbers and level of comfort, engaged in the grant of domestic services.
Composition of service: manager from exploitation, superficial personnel, senior housemaid, cleaners, attendants, on a floor, workers of laundry.
Service of restaurant economy provides maintenance of guests in restaurants, cafes, bars which take place in or at hotels, decides a question from organization and maintenance of feasts, presentations, and others like that.
Composition of service: manager, cooks, workers of kitchen, administrators of hall, waiters of hall and services of banquets, and others like that.
Commercial service is engaged in the questions of the operative and strategic planning, optimization of grant of services, analyses the state of hotel market and studies the necessities of clients.
Composition of service: business manager, service of marketing and advertising.
Financial service analyses the results of economic and financial activity of hotel.
Engeneering and tekhnical service creates terms for functioning equipment, electrical engineerings devices, services of repair and building, systems of television and connection, systems of whorm, and others like that.
Auxiliary services provide the process of work of caldron complex, laundry, dry-cleaning, and others like that.
Additional services are given by mainly requiring payment services. In their composition enter: business-center, sporting health-improvement center, barbershop and cosmetic cabinet, point-of-sale booths and others like that.
Will mark, that the unique and ideal case hotels frame is not. However, all of structure is conditioned the necessity of satisfaction of necessities of clients.