Топик : Survey of the British Geography and Life 

Полнотекстовый поиск по базе:

Главная >> Топик >> Иностранный язык

Survey of the British Geography and Life

Survey of the British Geography and Life

Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. The full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain comprises England, Scotland and Wales. With a total area of about 242,000 sq km, Britain is just under 1000 km long and some 500 km across in the widest part. London is the capital. Other major cities include Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. There are some 58 million people. Population density is highest in England and lowest in Scotland.

Structure: a basic highland/lowland division - NW/SE.

Mountain regions include: the Scottish Highlands - Ben Nevis 1343m ; the Lake District - Scafell 978 m; North Wales - Snowdon 1085 m; the Pennines - a limestone "backbone" in N. England; the Jurassic limestone escarpments, esp. the Cotswolds; the chalk escarpments, esp. the Chilterns, the North and South Downs;

NB: the Weald, the Fens (N. of Cambridge), the Broads (E. of Norwich).

Climate: the climate is changeable through the seasonal cycle. Generally, the winter months from December to February are the coldest, with the shortest hours of daylight. The temperature rises through the spring months of March to May, and is highest throughout the summer months from June to August. Temperatures rarely exceed 32°C (90° F) or fall below -10°C (14° F ). London is the hottest place. The weather is mainly influenced by depressions moving eastwards across the Atlantic. The average annual rainfall is more than 1,600 mm (over 60 inches) in the highland areas of the west and north but less than 800 mm (30 inches) over the more fertile lowlands of the south and east.

Britain's lowest air temperatures -27°C was recorded at Braemar in Scotland in February 1895, whilst the highest, 37.1°C, was registered at Cheltenham south-west England, in August 1990.

Wildlife: the most widespread wild vegetation in Britain are the heather, grasses, gorse and bracken of the moorland countryside in the,highland regions. In lowland Britain, with the exception of a few patches of heath and forest, farmland mainly covers the area. Common trees include oak, beech, ash and, in Scotland, pine and birch. Wild animal life comprises mainly species of smaller mammals ( such as badgers, foxes and rodents), birds (over . 400 species of which have been recorded, either breeding or migrating) and insects. There are about 30 kinds of freshwater fish. Reptiles and amphibians are few. Common and gray seals may be seen off parts of the coast.

For many years Britain has had policies and laws to protect its natural environment - e.g., designating National Parks and areas of outstanding natural beauty.

People: Britain absorbed a range of foreign cultures and traditions during the early centuries - Roman, Viking and Norman among them. In more recent times people from overseas have continued to settle in Britain, either to escape political or religious persecution, or in search of economic opportunities. Ethnic minorities now comprise about 5. 5 % of the population. All citizens enjoy the same rights and privileges. Racial discrimination is unlawful under the Race Relations Act 1976.

Languages: English is the official language, although the Welsh language has equal validity in Wales.

Cornish is now extinct (last speaker died around 1800);

Welsh spoken by 25% of total population of Wales but in some rural areas by 75%: still very much alive with radio and TV programmes, newspapers and festivals (Eisteddfod). Gaelic is only spoken in rural N.W.Scotland: in contrast to Welsh, it is rapidly declining with fewer than 50,000 speakers. Local place names in all these areas are based on the appropriate language, however. Irish Gaelic (Erse) is rather artificially imposed within the education system. It is the natural speech of only small numbers along the West coast.

Список литературы

Для подготовки данной работы были использованы материалы с сайта http://linguistic.ru/

Похожие работы:

  • United states of America: geography, history, culture

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... and Alaska. 2. Regions united states geography war holiday The geography of the ... , streams, and forests and the plants and animals that live in these ... the scale of the revolt and the weakness of the British position. Outnumbered by hostile forces, the British ...
  • The "new class"

    Сочинение >> Политология
    ... and philosophy, librarianship, visual and performing arts, geography, communication, recreation and leisure, and ... the British Protestant upper crust of the ... new life and better ... and the Europeans in the post-war years. I bet Birrell did not conduct a survey ...
  • American Revolution and War for Independence

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... the history of American Revolution and the War for Independence. The primary purpose of the survey ... in the relationship between the colonies and the mother country. 2. British and French conflict While the British had ...
  • The National Parks of Great Britan

    Сочинение >> Иностранный язык
    ... and Broads every year attract thousends of tourists. The peculiarity of the British ... and Edale). Geography The Peak District forms the southern end of the Pennines and much of the ... the west and Darlington to the east. Over 20,000 residents live and work in the ...
  • The Experience of transnational corporations’ development in the conditions of world financial crisis

    Дипломная работа >> Международные отношения
    ... the country's industrial development and internationalization of economic life ... and tobacco (Nestle, SAB-Miller, Coca-Cola, Kraft Foods, British ... struggling in 2009. The sharp fall in profits ... across markets and geographies. Moreover, in the current situation, ...
  • Africa

    Реферат >> География
    ... the British sphere of influence. The British company had sent caravans into the interior to survey the ... Geography of the British Colonies, vols. iii. and iv. (Oxford, 1894, 1904); F. D. and A. J. Herbertson, Descriptive Geographies ...
  • Description of Canada

    Курсовая работа >> География
    ... relations and military Provinces and territories Geography and climate Science and technology ... British Columbia; the eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and ... and use. The canoe, snowshoes, the toboggan, lacrosse, tug of war, maple syrup and ...
  • История Великобритании

    Реферат >> История
    ... dedicated to the development of two lessons for the “Regional Geography of Great ... sweep away the life of one of the family”. 8.2. “American English” The basic ... and the British people. London, Collins, 1990. 10. Clark, George. English history: A survey ...
  • National features of cuisine and table manners

    Курсовая работа >> Кулинария
    ... related to the differences in geography and local resources. People who live near water ... that the British live on tea and fish’n’chips, the Germans only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the ...
  • Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

    Дипломная работа >> Иностранный язык
    ... and Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man, The Life of Society and 8 topics from the ... to be found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition ... , geography and culture of the country or countries where the language spoken. The teacher ...