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Music and Ballet




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From: atanov@belnet.ru

Белгородское медицинское училище

ЮВЖД

Реферат по английскому языку.

Тема:
«Music and ballet».

Выполнила
студентка 24-й группы
Селикова Т.

г. Белгород

2001 г.

А

It was Mikhail Glinka (1804 — 1857) who laid the foundation for modern Russian music. After three years of study in Italy, he began to suffer from the wish to hear music expressing the temperament of his own people. His two best-known operas, Ivan Susanin and Ruslan and Lyudmila, were based on Russian folklore and historical legend.

Glinka’s works inspired a group of five younger composers who emerged as an extraordinary musical phenomenon in the late nineteenth century: Miliy Balakirev (1836 — 1910), Alexander Borodin (1833 — 1887), Modest Mussorgsky (1839 — 1881), Caesar Cui (1835 — 1918), and Nicholai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 — 1908).

В

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 — 1893) the best-known of all Russian composers, gave up a position in the civil service at the age of twenty-three to devote himself entirely to music, much against the wishes of his father. After completing his studies at St Peterburg Conservatoire, he set out for Moscow in 1866 to take up a Teaching post.

His financial circumstances took a turn for the better in 1877 when he acquired a wealthy patroness, Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck, who for the next fourteen years was to support him. By 1878 he had already composed the music for the ballet Swan Lake and one of his most famous operas , Eugene Onegin. These were followed by the opera The Queen of Spades (1890) and the ballets Sleeping Beauty (1889) and The Nutcracker (1892). Now internationally famous, he spent much of his time travelling around abroad to hear his works performed.

С

Tchaikovsky was followed by his pupil Sergei Taneyev (1856 — 1915), who in his turn taught Sergei Rachmaninov (1873—1943), the great pianist and composer, Alexander Scryabin (1872 — 1915) and Rein-gold Gliere (1875 — 1956). Another composer, Alexander Glazunov (1865 — 1936), had an important influence on the new generation of Russian composers during his time as a teacher and director of the St Petersburg Conservatoire, before he left Russia for France in 1928.

D

Igor Stravinsky was in his middle twenties when he met Sergei Diaghilev, the celebrated impressario of the Ballets Russes and went with him to Paris. In his works, particularly in the ballets Firebird and Petrushka, he was inspired by the Russian folk music. Stravinsky became a French citizen in 1934,but during the Second World War he moved to the United States.

E

Like many other composers of the younger generation, Sergei Prokofiev (1891 — 1953) and Dmitry Shostakovich (1906—1975) owed a debt to Glazunov. He persuaded Prokofiev’s father to send him to the Conservatoire to develop his musical talent, and defended young Shostakovich’s right to a scholarship there.

In the thirties, along with Prokofiev and others, Shostakovich fell into disgrace for “ideological deficiencies” and for a number of years almost all his works were banned and not performed in public.

Another Russian composer of the twentieth century to gain wide international popularity, is Aram Khachaturian (1903 — 1978), whose works include symphonies, ballet music and concertos for piano, violin and violoncello. One of his most famous works is the ballet Spartacus.

F

It was a Frenchman, Marius Petipa (1819 — 1910), who laid the foundation of Russian dance and influenced the development of classical ballet in Russia in the nineteenth century. Petipa cooperated with Tchaikovsky on The Sleeping Beautu and The Nutcracker. He himself created 57 full-length ballets, and directed 17 revivals.

In 1909 Russian ballet suddenly burst upon Europe, when Sergei Diaghilev, the brilliant producer, and Mikhail Fokine, a leading choreographer, took a company of dancers from the Imperial School of it Petersburg to Paris. His Ballets Russes were wonderful productions with colorful sets designed by some of Russia's finest artists, such as Alexander Benois and Lev Bakst, but the greatest sensation were the male dancers, Vazlav Nijinsky and Sergei Lifar.

After the Revolution ballet schools throughout the Soviet Union received strong

state support. Some outstanding new works were produced, such as Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet (1946) and Khachaturian's Spartacus (1968).

In the Fifties Moscow's Bolshoi Ballet and the Kirov Ballet (formerly the Imperial Ballet of St Petersburg) made their first, highly appreciated tours in the West. Today Russian dancers are still unsur­passed in their mastery of the pure classical style.

А

Это был Михаил Глинка, который заложил основу современной русской музыки. После трех лет учебы в Италии, он хотел услышать музыку, выражающую характер людей. Две его знаменитые оперы «Иван Сусанин», «Руслан и Людмила» были основаны на русском фольклоре и исторических легендах.

Работы Глинки вдохновили группу 5 молодых композиторов, которые появились, как музыкальный феномен в конце XIX века: Мили Балакирев (1836 — 1910), Александр Бородин (1833 — 1887), Модест Мусоргский (1839 — 1881), Цезарь Куи (1835 — 1918) и Николай Римский-Корсаков (1844 — 1908) .

В

Петр Ильич Чайковский (1840 — 1893) знаменитый русский композитор оставил гражданскую службу в 23 года и посвятил свою оставшуюся жизнь музыке против воли отца. После окончания учебы в Петербургской консерватории он отправился в Москву в 1866 году и занял учительский пост. Его финансовое положение улучшилось, когда он познакомился с богатой патронессой Надеждой Филаретовной фон Мек, которая 14 лет оказывала ему поддержку. Она писала ему, но никогда не встречалась с ним. В 1878 году он уже написал музыку к балету «Лебединое озеро» и знаменитую оперу «Евгений Онегин». Так же не менее знамениты: «Пиковая дама», «Щелкунчик», «Спящая красавица». Сейчас Чайковский знаменит во всем мире.

С

Чайковский был одним из учеников Сергея Таниева, который изменил обучение Сергея Рахманинова, великолепного пианиста и композитора Александра Скрябина. Другой композитор Александр Глазунов оказал важное влияние на новое течение в музыке как учитель и управляющий Петербургской Консерватории. После он переехал из России во Францию в 1928 году.

D

Игорю Стравинскому было почти 18, когда он встретил Сергея Догилева, блестящего импресарио русского балета, и увез его в Париж. На его работы «Жар-птица» и «Петрушка» его вдохновила народная музыка. Стравинский стал гражданином Франции в 1934, но в течение Второй Мировой войны он переехал в США.

Е

Другие молодые композиторы нового поколения Сергей Прокофьев и Дмитрий Шостакович обязаны Глазунову. Он убедил отца Прокофьева отдать его в консерваторию для развития музыкального таланта и защищал право Шостаковича на получение стипендии. В 30-е годы Прокофьев, Шостакович и другие попали в немилость за идеологические недостатки и в течение нескольких лет все их работы были запрещены и не исполнялись перед публикой. Другие композиторы XIX века получили широкую известность и международную популярность: Арам Хачатурян, чьи работы включают симфонию, концерты на фортепиано, скрипке, виолончели. Одна из самых знаменитых работ — балет «Спартак».

F

Французы, Мариус Петира, основоположник русского танца, оказал влияние на развитие русского балета XIX века. Петира совместно работал с Чайковским над «Спящей красавицей». Он создал 57 балетов и руководил восстановлением 17 постановок.

В 1909 году русский балет неожиданно появился в Европе, когда Сергей Дягилев, блестящий постановщик и Михаил Фокин, ведущий хореограф взяли танцевальную группу Имперской школы Петербурга в Париж. Их русский балет был замечательно поставлен с использованием красочных декораций лучших российских художников таких, как Александр Беноис и Лев Бакст, но грандиозного успеха добился мужской балет, Вацлав Нижский и Сергей Лифар.

После революции балетная школа всего Советского Союза получила всеобщую поддержку. Были поставлены несколько новых выдающихся работ таких, как «Ромео и Джульетта» Прокофьева и «Спартак» Хачатуряна.

Пятый Московский Большой Балет и Кировский Балет (ранее Имперский Балет Санкт Петербурга) стали первыми после гастроли на Запад. Сейчас русский балет остается непревзойденным в мастерстве и чистом классическом стиле.

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