Топик : Category of number of the noun 

Полнотекстовый поиск по базе:

Category of number of the noun

Главная >> Топик >> Иностранный язык

2. Category of Number of the Noun.

Regular – one.

Plural – more than one.

Regular Plurals:

  1. Nouns ending in vowels & voiced consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z])

  2. Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s])

  3. s,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz])

  4. o: -es-hero-heroes. But:


  1. after a vowel – bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos.

  2. In proper names – Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos.

  3. In abbreviations - kilos, photos, pros(professional).

  4. Also: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos,tangos, tobaccos.

  5. In other cases the spelling is -oes (tomatoes, echoes, Negroes, potatoes, vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes)

  6. –oes/-os : cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s

  1. Consonant+y - -ies (sky-skies). But:


  1. After vowels, except nouns ending –quy(day-days, soliloquy-soliloquies)

  2. In proper names: the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys

  3. In compounds: stand-bys, lay-bys.

  4. Penny: pence-the British currency(денежная сумма), pennies-for individual coins.

  1. f(e)

  1. ves: wife-wives, life-lives, leaf-leaves, knife-knives, wolf-wolves, calf-calves, half-halves, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves.

  2. s: other nouns(proof-proofs, chief-chefs, safe-safes, cliff-cliffs, gulf-gulfs, dwarf-dwarfs, reef-reefs, grief-griefs

  3. ves/-s: scarf-scarfs/scarves, dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves, hoof-hoofs/hooves.

  1. th - -ths (mouth-mouths)

  2. in abbreviations - -s(M.P.-M.P.s) But: Ms(manuscript)-MSS, p.(page)-pp., Mr-

Irregular Plurals.

  1. By vowel change (Man-men, woman-women, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice, louse-lice).

  2. en (ox-oxen, child-children)

  3. Identical

  1. (sheep-sheep, swine-swine(свинья), deer-deer, grouse-grouse(куропатка). But: 2 variants: fish-fish/fishes, pike-pile/pikes, trout-trout(s), carp-carp(s), salmon-salmon(s). The zero plural is more common to denote hunting quarries. (We caught a few fish, five salmon); the regular plural – different individuals, species.

  2. Nationality nouns in –ese, -ss: Chinese, Swiss. And: Englishmen = the English, Dutchmen = the Dutch.

  3. Latin & French nouns: series-series(ряд, серия), species-species(вид, порода, род), corps [ko:]-corps[ko:z] (корпус, род войск).

  4. Pair, couple, dozen, score(20), stone(6,35 kg), head (поголовье): 2 dozen of children, dozens of children.


  1. Loans of Greek origin -(-is - -es: basis-bases, crisis-crises, analysis, thesis, parenthesis, axis[вал, ось, шпендель], hypothesis, diagnosis; -on – a: criterion – criteria, phenomenon, -a – ata: miasma-miasmata)

  2. Loans of Latin origin (-us - -i, -ora, -era: stimulus-stimuli, nucleus-nuclei[ядро],radius-radii[тело], genus-genera[род]; -a - -ae: formula-formulae(formulas), antenna, vertebra[позвонок]; -um - -a: datum-data[данная величина], stratum-strata[описка], erratum-errata[опечаток]; -es,-ix - -ices, -es: index-indices(indexes), appendix, matrix)

  3. Other loan nouns (-ean - -eaux: tableau-tableaux, bureau; -o - -i: tempo-tempi)

  4. 2 variants (memorandum –memoranda, memorandums, curriculum-curricula, curriculums[курс обучения], formula-formulae, formulas, cherub-cherubim[херувим], cherubs, focus-foci, focuses)

  5. Different meaning index-indexes-list of contents of books, indices-показатель; genius-geniuses-men of talent, genii-духи, домовые)

Plural in compound nouns

  1. The 2nd component takes the plural form as a rule (housewives, tooth-brushes)

  2. ful – at the end of the word(handfuls, spoonfuls)

  3. man & woman –the 1st components(men-servants, women-docters)

  4. ending –man – men(policeman-policemn) But:Germans, Romans(not compounds)

  5. prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element only – the 1st noun takes the plural form(editors-in-chief-главный редактор, mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chiefs-главнокомандующий, coats-of-mail-кольчуга, men-of-war-военный корабль)

  6. compounds = conjunction as a linking element – the plural is taken by the 2nd noun (gin-and-tonics)

  7. compound=noun+preposition/adverb/adjective-the 1st element-plural(passers-by, lookers-on-зритель, courts-material-военно-полевой суд, attorneys-general-министр юстиции)

  8. when the compound is a substantivized phrase which doesn’t contain a noun, the last element –plural(forget-me-nots-незабудка, breakdowns-поломка, stand-bys-запасной, grown-ups, close-ups-крупный план, pick-ups-случайные знакомства, drop-outs-дезертир, go-betweens-посредник)

Invariable nouns(can’t change their number)

Singular invariable nouns

  1. Non-count

  1. Material(tea, sugar) But:cheeses-kind of cheese

  2. Abstract-music, anger

  1. Proper nouns The Thames, Henry

  2. Some ening-s

  1. news(10 o’clock news), means-by this means(этими средствами), Gallows(виселица)

  2. diseases(mumps-свинка, measles-корь, rickets-рахит, shingles-краснуха)

  3. games(billiards, bowls-гольф, dominoes, draughts)

  4. some proper nouns(Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flanders, Marseilles, Naples, Wales, The United Nations, the United States.

  5. Nouns ending –ics(classics, phonetics)

Plural invariable nouns

  1. Marked

  1. Names of tools…consisting 2 equal parts(bellows-мехи, binoculars, breeches-бриджи, braces-фигурные скобки, flannels-фланелевые брюки, glasses, pants-брюки, трусы, pincers-щепцы, pliers-щипчики, плоскогубцы, pyjamas, scales, scissors, shorts, spectacles-очки, suspenders-подтяжки, tights-колготки, tongs-щипцы, trousers, tweezers-пинцет)

  2. Miscellaneous nouns(смешанный) (annals, antics, archives, arms, ashes, the Commons, contents, customs, customs-duty, customs-house, earnings, goods, goods train, greens, holidays, manners, minutes, outskirts, quarters, stairs, suds, surroundings, thanks, troops, wages, whereabouts, the Middle Ages)

  3. Some proper nouns (the East Indies, the West Indies, the Hibrides, the Highlands, the Midlands, the Netherlands)

  1. Unmarked(nouns of multitude & collective):

C: the family was large, m: the family were fond of their house.

Ways of showing partition

A piece of, a loaf of, a stick of, a bar of, a sheet of, lump, blade, block, strip, grain, pile, heap, word, item, article, fit

2. Category of Case of the noun

Shows the relation of the noun with other words in the sentence

Common case-zero inflexion

Genitive case-apostrophe s(‘s)

  1. Genitive


  1. [z]-after vowels & voiced consonans-negro’s, dog’s

  2. [s]-after voiceless consonants-student’s

  3. [iz]-after sibilants(свистящий)- prince’s, judge’s; Marx’s ideas

  4. zero ending-girls’, boys’

  1. with regular plural nouns(boys’)

  2. greek nouns in –s(Socrates’ wife, Xerxes’(зерксис)

  3. other names: 2 variants – Burns’ & Burns’s poems

Compound nouns-s joined to the final component(the editor-in chief’s office)

Group genitive(when ‘s can be joined)

  1. 2 persons possess or are related to smth they have in common(mom & dad’s room, John & Mary’s car)

  2. to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a clause(the Duke of Norfolk’s sister, the secretary of state’s room, the man I saw yesterday’s son)

  3. to a noun(pronoun)+a pronoun group(someone else’s benefit)

  4. to a group ending in a numeral(in an hour or two’s time)

The main meaning of the genitive case-possession, Possessive case, main modifications:

  1. the idea of belonging: John’s coat

  2. Different kinds of relations:

  1. Relation of the whole to its part(Jon’s leg)

  2. Personal or social relations(John’s wife)

  1. subjective relations(The doctor’s arrival, the Chekhov’s book)

  2. authorship(Byron’s poem)

  3. objective relations(John’s arrest-he was arrested)

  4. measure(an hour’s trip, a mile’s distance)

s lost the meaning of possession (woman’s work, idiot’s smile, women’s college, angel’s eyes)

The use of genitive case & its equivalent of-phrase

  1. with nouns denoting persons & animals(John’s idea, swalow’s nest). With other nouns-of+noun phrase

  2. with nouns denoting time & distance(minute, moment, year & substantivized adverbs - today)today’s papers-сегодняшние, the papers of today-сегодняшнего дня)

  3. with the names of countries & towns(Britain’s national museum, Canada’s population)

  4. with the names of newspapers denoting different kinds of organizations(company’s plan, Guardian’s analysis, Geographical Society’s gold medal)

  5. with the nouns world, nation, country, city, town(the nation’s health)

  6. with the nouns ship, boat, car(ship’s crew)

  7. with nouns denoting planets(sun, moon, earth)(this earth’s life)

  8. set expressions: to one heart’s content(desire), at death’s door, at arm’s length, out of harm’s way, a hair’s breadth, a needle’s eye, at a stone’s throe, to move at a snail’s pace, at the water’s edge

The syntactical function of the genitive –attribute. It’s always used as a premodifier & sometimes called the depend genitive.

The absolute genitive – when the genitive case is not followed by the headword & when it stands for the whole noun phrase:

It is used:

  1. to avoid repetition(our house is better than Mary’s(house))

  2. after the preposition of(an old frend of my mother’s)

  3. to denote shops(the grocer’s, the baker’s)

  4. saints’ nameSt Paul’s(cathedral)

  5. places of residence(at my uncle’s, at Timothy’s)

Double genitive

  1. My mother’s father’s people

  2. The boy’s half-hour’s run

Похожие работы:

  • Сategory of number of nouns

    Контрольная работа >> Иностранный язык
    Introduction Number is the grammatical category of the noun which shows whether we ... The category of number is expressed by the opposition of the plural form of the noun ... The category of number is expressed by the opposition of the plural form of the noun ...
  • The system of English verbs

    Курсовая работа >> Иностранный язык
    ... , especially conversion of the «noun – verb» type, greatly enlarges the simple stem set ... (471) that the distinction of the category of catenative verbs reduces the number of nonfinite ...
  • The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

    Курсовая работа >> Иностранный язык
    ... categories. Verbs have the category of mood, tense, aspect, voice, person, number etc., noun – case, number ... simultaneously the third person and the plural number. In the comparing languages the category of person ...
  • The history of Old English and its development

    Топик >> Иностранный язык
    ... categories which change its forms: the number, the case, the gender. It ias known that the ... they always denote the quality of the noun, they act the same way as ... as the noun, the adjective can be declined in case, gender and number. Moreover, the ...
  • The basic features of translation informal lexicon

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... to informal lexicon above the specified categories) the translator should recreate ... in our opinion, cover a number of problems which arise while ... do not want to name directly. These foreigners ( ... ) prefers to name itself not the guitarist, and the artist on a ...
  • The 70-th anniversary

    Топик >> Иностранный язык
    ... training it was given the name "Youth" by the All – Union Council of ... the Technical School. All these arrangements are held collectively, uniting a large number ... stuffs), a teacher of the highest category, the Director of the Methodical Cabinet, has been ...
  • The copyright rights

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... concern number of literary works, scientific works (articles, reports, etc.), the educational ... and similar to them concern a category of the protected - irrespective of object ... three elements - the Latin letter "With" in a circle, a name (name) of the owner of ...
  • The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... Under this name in 1907 in Moscow the exhibition which ... life of new grouping under the causing name "a jack Of diamonds". ... key to the code number of this picture. But the direction of ... not valid subjects and abstract categories of the invoice - rough, fragile ...
  • Noun and its grammatical categories

    Курсовая работа >> Иностранный язык
    ... Noun? 2. Semantical Characteristics of English Nouns 3. The Category of Case 4. The Category of Number ... form – they've two grammatical categories: number and case 3. they ... changes. 4. The Category of Number of English Nouns The category of number of English ...