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Лекции бабушки Шмариной...LECTURE 1.

THEME: Introduction into the science of GRAMMAR.


1. The object of Grammar. The property of Grammar.

2. Normative & theoretical Grammar.

3. The basic units of language.

4. Divisions of Grammar.

5. Language & speech.

6. The paradigmatic & syntagmatic relations.

1. It's generally known, that language is a system. First of all, the system of

3 constituent parts: PHONOLOGY, LEXICOLOGY & GRAMMAR.

According to the traditional point of view, phonology & grammar deal with general categories, such as vowels, consonants, nouns, words, subjects etc. That means that statements, concerning such phenomena may be related to a whole class of homogenious things. In other words, such phenomena are of the general character.

Lexicology, on the contrary, deals with individual units: words( or linguistic signs).Hence it follows that lexicological statements are of a special character, for such statements refer to every single unit of the vocabulary. E.g.: ,,Dog'' - denotes a certain domestic animal, a friend to a man. It's an individual pet. But if we use the word in the form ,,Dogs"(pl.), it becomes a general pet; that concerns the great number of other words: tigers, students... . Each of the above mentioned constituent parts of language is investigated by a corresponding linguistic discipline.

Phonology is described by the science of phonology.The lexical description of language is described by lexicology. Grammar is described by grammar. No language can exist without vocabulary, but only Grammar gives a human thought a material linguistic form, thanks to its abstract character. It's a kind ofself-tuning system. Grammar is the result of a long time abstracting work of human mind. Grammar abstracts itself from the particular & concrete and builds its rules & laws, taking into consideration only the common features of groups & words. That's why Grammar is always compared with Geometry. Abstract character is the 1st characteristic feature of Grammar. Another characteristic feature of Grammar is Stability, which manifests itself in the fact, that laws & categories of Grammar exist through ages without considerable changes, because Gr. is a product of many epochs.

2. The main object of Gr. as a science is the grammatical structure of language, i.e. the system of the laws of word changing & sentence building. The rules of Grammar govern the ways in which words are joined together to express feelings, emotions, etc. The Grammar of each language constitutes a system of its own, each element of which stands in certain relations to other elements.

There are two types of Grammar:

1. Normative.

2. Theoretical.

All the rules, according to which, people construct their speech are based on Normative Grammar.

Normative Grammar is the collection of rules of the given language, which provide the students with a manual of practical mastering the Grammar. Thus, Normative Grammar is of a prescriptive character. Theoretical Grammar is the branch of linguistics, which studies the forms of the words & their relations in sentences in more abstract way, giving the profound description of existing grammatical laws & tendencies. Every theoretical description presents the studied parts of language in an isolated form, so as to look inside into their structure & expose the mechanisms of their functioning, i.e. the mechanism of the formation of utterances out of words in the process of speaking.

The aim of Theoretical Grammar is to present a scientific description of a certain system of a certain language. Thus, Theoretical Grammar is of a descriptive character.

3. The basic units of language & speech are: the phoneme, the morpheme, the word, the sentence & the supra phrasal unity. The phoneme is the smallest distinctive unit. That means: if you take two words ,,season'' & ,,reason'', you will see, they differ in 1one phoneme formally. This

phoneme helps you to see, that these two words have different meanings. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit. E.g.: Unhappily. The word is the smallest nominative unit. The sentence is the smallest communication unit. The sentence is an utterance, that pre-supposes the act of speech; the speaker or writer; the listener or reader; reality, as viewed by the speaker. In oral speech sentences are marked by pauses;

in written sp.--- by full stops. In language, the sentence is an abstract pattern & in speech, it's a concrete utterance.

The word group or the word combination or a phrase is a naming unit like a word. But it names not separate things, but some relations between the things.

E.g.: a new car.

The supra phrasal unity is a functional unit of speech, which consists of more than one sentence, related syntectically & semantically. In oral speech they are marked by a three unit pause; in written sp.--- by indented lines.

4. Traditionally, the course of Grammar is divided into two parts:

1. Morphology.

2. Syntax.

Morphology originates from the word ,, morpheus'' (the god of dreams). They thought the god of dreams gave shape to their chaotical visions in sleep. Morphology deals with forms of words. It includes: parts of speech & their morphological categories. Morphological categories are represented in word forms. It studies the system of forms of word change. E.g.: the case & the

number of the noun; person, number, mood of the verb etc. Syntax includes the sentence & the parts of the sentence; it makes the study of ways of connection words & word combinations in the sentences.

Morphology & Syntax are two independent parts of Grammar and have their own objects of study; they're closely connected, for the morphological characteristics of the word are realized through its syntactical relations with other words.

On the other hand, the syntactical relations of the word may effect the morphological characteristics of parts of speech in the course of development of the grammatical structure of the language. E.g.: substantivisation of adjectives.



5. The distinctions between language & speech, which were first introduced by Ferdinant de Saussure, have since become one of the corner stones of Modern Linguistics.

,, Language is a system''.

It's the phonological, lexical & grammatical system, which lies at the basis of all speaking. It's the sourse, which every speaker & writer has to draw on if he wants to be understood by other speakers of the language. Speech, on the other hand, is the manifestation of language or its practical use by various speakers & writers of the given language. Thus, what we have before

us in oral or written form as material for analysis is always a product of speech.

There is no other way for linguists to get to language than through speech. Language characterizes a certain human community. It's used in the community; it's understood by all the members of the community; so it's called a social code. And by its nature, Language is social. Speech, on the contrary, is individual, but it's based upon language which exists in the minds of all speaking community. We can't see language, neither hear it. We can get to it only through speech. As we're concerned with Grammar only, we don't have to deal with phonological

and lexical parts of language. We shall only concentrate on the system of Grammar & its manifestation. Language & Speech are closely connected & intermingled. They may come a unity. Language is realized through Speech. The life of language consists in oral & written intercourse within 2 or more people. This linguistic intercourse is manifested through connected communications chiefly in the form of sentences, though not always so complete & well-arranged. The object in teaching Grammar is not only rules, which must be obeyed if one wants to speak & write the language correctly. It also aims at finding out what is actually said & written by the speakers of the language.

According to Ferdinant de Saussure: ,, Language is a treasure, formed by way of speaking practice & preserved in the minds of the people who belong to a certain speaking community." ,, Язык -- это клад, отлагаемый в памяти всех членoв данного языкового коллектива." It's a system of 3 systems (lex., gram., phon.), potentially existing in every mind & at the same time, in the minds of the whole speaking community, for, language can't exist wholly in one individual.

6. There're certain relations within the language. They say, the language is a system of paradigmatic relations. We mean the structure of various means & the classes they form. E.g.: boy, boys, boy's, boys'. They are written down with a vertical way. Paradigmatic relations are vertical. Speech is a system of syntagmatic relations. They're always linear (horizontal).

Syntagmatic chains - we mean the combinations, the same units form in the process of communication. E.g.: voice of phoning machine.

Originally, the differentiation between paradigmatics & syntagmatics was based on recognition of the two linguistic planes:

1. The plane of language.

2. The plane of speech.

Language planes are structured paradigmatically, speech ones - syntagmatically. It's generally known, that every linguistic unit ends in 2 types of systemic relations at a time. If certain units, equal in rank are correlated by means of an opposition (E.g.: long--longer--longest), we say they have paradigmatic relations, that are usually vertical & imply the choice when they're realized in actual speech (E.g.: I'm not going to stay here any longer.), the element that stands in paradigmatic relations. But they're substitutable. E.g.: 1). The way to the station is very long.

2). Which is the longest river in the world? Opposition relations are called associative. Associative groups exist in the vertical way. If linguistic elements appear in a contrast linear pattern, we say they have syntagmatic relations. They form a syntagneme, which may comprise:

phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, clauses. Syntagmatic relations can be observed not only at syntax level, they're not associative, but constructive, for they're based on the linear confrontation of the language units. Paradigmatic relations, which are typical of language, may be of different kinds: 1. They may be based on the similarity of the semantic features (synonymous & antonymous groups). E.g.: nice, pretty... 2. They may be based on the similarity of the formal characteristics of linguistic elements. Such relations exist between the members of a paradigm, which consists not of the units, but of those paradigmatic markers, which distinguish one form of the unit from its other forms. E.g.: go, goes, will go, has gone.

3. At the level major syntax we may also observe sentence paradigms, which are called transforms. They are united by a common meaning. E.g.: The work has been done, we went home. The work done, we went home. After the work was done, we went home. Syntagmatic relations exist between the elements linearly ordered. That is between phonemes, words etc. Linearity is the main factor for syntagmatic relations. Standing together in linear order, linguistic elements can make up a unity. But linearity is not the only ground, on which all syntagmatic relations are established. According to the logical approach, the differentiation is made between the 3 types of syntagmatic relations:

1. Independence. 2. Dependence. 3. Interdependence.

There are: combinational syntagmatic relations, which reveal relatedness of elements & non-combinational ones.

Combinational syntagmatic relations can be subdivided into:

1. Collocational (lexico-semantic).

2. Colligational (grammatical).

Collocational relations are not of a grammatical character, they're of lexicosemantic character; the collocated elements are located together in the same linear arrangement (,,to speak fluently).

Colligational relations are based on the morphological & syntactical peculiarities of the word (,,to tell him"; ,,to say nothing").Non-combinational relations are cohesive. They may be anaphoric & cataphoric.

Non-combinational relations are typical of the syntax of the text, which mean that neither phrases, nor sentences can be formed on the basis of such relations.

They're specifically textual & cohesive. They appear between sentences & supra phrasal unities. Linearity is not essential for such occasion. The cohesive relations appear between the elements which are usually in distant positions. The anaphoric relations show that an element refers to its antecedent in the left-hand side (retrospective relations). The cataphoric relations indicate that antecedent is located in the right text contest (prospective relations).

E.g.: ,, He hated interference especially in his work & beyond everything he hated interfering women. The more he thought of it, the angrier he became."


THEME: Morphology.


1. Aspects of Morphology.

2. The definition of the morpheme.

3. The allo-emic principle.

4. The types of morphemes.

5. Types of word-form derivation.

1. Grammar has two constituent parts: Morphology & Syntax.

Morphology deals with morphological units (the morpheme & the word); word-forms, which signify some general conceptual notions (grammar. meanings, grammatical forms, grammatical categories). It also studies the parts of speech. Morphology has certain branches: one of them is morpho-phonemics, which describes the phonological representation of meaningful morphemes.

E.g.: morphophonemic vowel interchange in "ring - rang - rung" plays a definite part in the system of form-building. The vowel interchange in the words "food -feed is a means of word-building.

Another branch of Morphology - morphemics deals with the description of the morphological models of the language. In other words, it describes the morpheme structure, the ways of their location in the units of high level. E.g.: 2. Even casual comparison of such word form as dogs, boys, with the

corresponding dog, boy, will show that the 1st set may be split into 2 grammatically significant elements (<dog>+<s>), which, on the one hand, convey the meaning, and on the other, cause the certain agreement between the words in a sentence. Thus, we say: "The dog sleeps in a kennel", but "The dogs sleep in a kennel. The form "dog" can't be divided into future grammatically significant elements. Further division may be only phonologically. The described minimal grammatical units are called morphemes. They are delimited by comparing word form with one another and by singling out the recurrent pieces that compose them. A word may consist of 1 or more morphemes, each morpheme them conveys a particular lexical or grammatical meaning.

The morpheme - is the smallest meaningful, further indivisible recurrent component of a word or a word form.

3. If the approach from the point of view of speech, we can observe the following phenomenon: the morphemes like words may exhibit different forms in the process of speaking. It depends on their position within the word. E.g.: the regular formative of the plural number morpheme "s" may be represented in speech in different ways.

In languageIn speech

[s] - book

- (e)s[z] - boys

[iz] - boxes

Allomorphs are speech variants of morphemes.

At the basis of allo-emic elements lies the division into language and speech. The term morphemes stands for the whole grammatically relevant class of forms. They belong to language. It is an abstract entity which expresses particular grammatical meaning. Em-terms denote generalized invariants of language, characterized by a certain functional status ( Allo-morphes denote the concrete manifestation of invariants, of the generalized units, dependent on the regular colligation with other elements of the language.Invariants are abstract. The allo-morphs (or variant morphemes ) like [s], [z], [iz] are phonologically predictable, but we have many examples of allo-morphs , which can't be explained by usage of speech criteria. Thus, the English plural form of the word "ox" - "oxen" is grammatically parallel to "dogs". "En" is an

irregular form of the plural number. There are other irregular forms: "children", "geese". Professor Robins considered them to be allo-morphs of the plural number morphemes. According to the tradition, which goes back to Panini Grammar, such specific forms as......... are considered by linguists as having any form (0 form ) of plural number.

There is another group of words which have a specific morphemic structure: E.g.:"man - men", "tooth - teeth". The plural forming morpheme is represented not by any recurrent formative like [s], but a process of root vowel interchange. E.g.: [ж] - [e] etc. We are dealing here with infix morphemes. Such word forms are rarely survivals of the specific morphemic structure of Old English. To simplify the complicated

system of analysis, professor Ilysh V.A. and others refer all the speech exhibits of the plural number morphemes to the allo-morphs of the plural number morphemes, which graphically may be depicted as following: Language Speech plural number morphemes [s], [z], [iz], [ш], [ж]--[e], [f]--[vz],[u]--[i]. The analysis and classification of different phonological forms in which morphemes appear, both in individual languages and in languages in general is called Morphonology, which is the same as morphophonemics. When discussing the different forms of the English plural number morphemes we applied the morphophonological analysis.

4. There are two criteria in classifying morphemes:

1). Positional

2). Functinal (semantic).

According to positional criterion morphemes are divided into: root morphemes and affixal morphemes (affixes,{prefixes, infixes, suffixes}). In other words, root morphemes are called free morphemes, while affixal are bound morphemes. A free morpheme is vand ?. a bound morpheme is one, that must appear with at least one other morpheme, bound or free. E.g.: "work"+"ed". Root morphemes are unlimited in number. Affixes are bound morphemes, they are limited in number, and may be exhaustedly elisted. Some words have more than one morpheme, they are compound words. E.g.: " bird-cherry ", "scare-crow". In English the majority of roots are free. But nevertheless there are bound root morphemes. They are the following.

E.g.: receive, conceive

retain, contain

transfer, refer.

Affix is a term denoting recurrent formative morphemes, other than roots. From the point of view of formal presentation we distinguish: overt [ouvit] and covert [kA vit]. Overt morphemes are represented explicitly: "retell", "asked"; covert morphemes coincide with 0(zero morpheme). Every morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit, thus "ed" conveys the morpheme of Past tense. We should differentiate form-building morphemes (that are grammatical) and word-building

morphemes (they are lexical). E.g.: movement , outline - word-building morphemes asked, asks, getting - form-building morphemes 5. Form-building morpheme is called word changing. Modern English extremely poor according to the word-changing, but there are some.

1). Affixation.

It is the use of epithets. E.g.: "bus" - "buses".

Only Suffixation is used in modern English. Prefixation was productive in old English period. For the formation of perfect participle

2). Sound Interchange.

Vowel interchange Consonant interchange

3). Supplative forms

"bad" - "worse" - "worst"

"go" - "went" - "gone"

"be", "is", "are", "am" - "was", "were" - "been".

All of 1), 2), 3) - belong to the syntactic way of form-building.

4). Analytical forms are particular word-combinations, made up of an auxiliary or a notional word.


Analytical forms are very productive in modern English

Grammar deals with form-building .


have................................................en frames


continuous morphemes

The matter is, that the analytical ???????? (can be put) consist of two meaningful morphemes. Analytical morphemes are not free word combination like "a red rose", neither are phraseological units like " red tape"(burocracy). Analytical forms can't be compared with words, they are word forms like synthetic forms, performing a definite grammatical function. The word

1. The definition of the word.

2. The characteristic features of the word.

3. The two planes of the word.

The word is the main object of lexicology as well. It is not easy to give rigorous definition of the word. Since it is very complex and many sided phenomenon. The term "word" denotes the basic unit of a given language, resulting from the associations of a particular meaning with the particular group of sounds, capable of the particular grammatical employment. Arnold, "The

English word". This working definition of the word implies that the word is simultaneously

a semantical and grammatical unit. There are many definitions of the word and none of them are generally accepted. The word is considered to be the minimal potential sentence, the minimal free linguistic form, the elementary component of the sentence, the sound symbol, the meaningfully integral and immediately identifiable unit.

The difficulty in defining the word compel some linguists to exclude the word from the basic unit of the language. L. Bloomfield school in US. That school linguists consider the morpheme and the phoneme to be the basic units of linguistic description, for the phoneme can be easily isolated from the context thanks to its minimal elementary segmental character. They consider the phoneme to be the minimal formal segment of language and the morpheme to be the ultimate

meaningful segment. The main drawback of descriptive linguistics is that they approach the definition of the linguistic units on a formal basis. The other linguists came to the conclusion, that such units must be defined by taking into consideration their formal and functional (semantic) features.

2. In actual speech people experience no difficulty in separating one word from another. Traditionally, linguists point out isolatebility as the most characteristic features of the word. One word can form a sentence ("Fire!", "Thanks!",...). Another characteristic feature of the word is its

uninterruptibility or indivisibility. Even if you take compound words, such as "blackberry", "blue-eyed", you won't be able to insert another word in the middle of this compound word. Third feature is a certain looseness in the sentence, i.e. that you may place the word in different parts of the sentence. E.g.: "The bat flew down."="Down flew the bat."But still, don't forget, that the English word-order is rigid unlike the Russian word order. Russian language is a highly developed morphological system. The set looseness is marked in writing by the graphic form of the word with certain spaces between the words.

In oral speech, every word is separated from its neighbours by one unit pause. Some difficulty is paused by the application of the term "word". Some linguists regard such group of words as work, worked, is working as one word. The whole group can't be used as a unit of speech, for the unit must belong both to language & speech. Of all the group, only the element "work" can be regarded as an objective unit of the language. All the grammeme are called lexeme. "A lexeme is a group of word forms, united by the common lexical meaning, but having different grammatical meaning."

If we take a group of words, united by the common grammatical meaning, we shall get a grammeme.

E.g.: sleeps, reads, tries, fucks - Grammeme.

A number of elements of the lexeme may vary from 1 ("must") to many.

E.g.: The lexeme, represented by the word "wright" &THORN; contains &THORN; 94 elements, expressed by 64 forms.

The number of words in a grammeme is practically limitless. But the gammeme having the meaning only Past tense, indicative mood, plural number, not perfect, not continuos aspects, contains only 1 word : were .The word is a nominative ( naming ) unit of language .It enters the vocabulary as its elementary component indivisible into smaller segments.The word is used for the formation of the sentence. The word is the basic unit of the language , which occupies the key position in the language. It's universal in its character. It is capable of performing any function in the language : nominative, significant, communicative & pragmatic. The functional sphere of the word is very wide. It may represent a morpheme ( free place ), a nominative sign ( desk ), A part of a word group ( a big fire ) & a sentence ( Fire! ).

3. A word is a linguistic sing. A linguistic sign is a bilateral entity, having it a content & formal side, which correlates with the concept & may indirectly reflect the objects & phenomena of objective reality ( extralinguistic reality ). Not all the linguistic signs have reference to the outer world. Being a bilateral linguistic sign, the word is characterized by 2 planes :

The plane of content

The plane of expression.

bombthe plan of expression

the plane of content

The first & the second are the dialectical unity of form and content. In the plane of expression, the word has its material representation. In oral speech it is represented acoustically by a group of sounds, in written speech - graphically. The plane of content includes the lexical meaning of word. The word exists in two dimensions, namely as a virtual polysemantic sign of the vocabulary, and as an actual sign, used in speech.

The virtual side of the language sign exists in the sphere of language. It is an unrealized word, while the actual side of the word belongs to the syntagmatic sphere of speech.


Theme : Grammatical categories.

Grammar abstracts itself from particular meanings of words and deals with the most generalized meanings, that may be proper to big groups of words with different lexical meanings.

In logic, the most general notions reflecting the most general properties of some phenomena are called categorial notions ( or categories ). The most general meanings in Linguistics are regularly expressed through the system of the paradigmatically organized word forms and are interpreted as categorial meanings.

According to the general methodological law, every content must have a certain material form of expression. If we take a generalized meaning of plurality we can find its material implementation in many word forms such as : streets, cars, houses, girls, students which make up a grammeme. The grammatical phenomena, like the word in lexicology are also characterized by the 2 planes : the plane of content ( meaning ) & the plane of form ( expression ).

Since the meaning of plurality is represented in many word forms, we may interpret it as a grammatical meaning & the word forms, representing it materially are called grammatical forms.

  • Sthe plane of grammatical expression

  • pluralitythe plane of grammatical meaning

The unity of the grammatical meaning with a grammatical form may testify to the existence of the grammatical category, but to establish grammatical category, we must find a system of paradigmatically correlated grammatical forms.

E.g.: boys can be correlated with boy's Since Within the noun we may come across the following paradigm, expressing the generalized notion of number.

E.g.: street - streets; ox - oxen ; foot - feet.

If we analyze the opposed forms street - streets, we may observe, that they are grammatically opposed, for 1 expresses singularity, the other - plurality. The 2 opposed meanings are united by a more abstract meaning of noun. This highly abstract meaning of noun represented by the paradigmatic correlation of 2 grammatical forms makes up a grammatical category. Likewise, we may establish the existence of the category of tense of the verb, but it will be represented by the grammatical opposition of 3 grammatical forms & grammatical meanings.

E.g. : ask - asked - will ask

present past future

The opposition of grammatical forms always represents the opposition of grammatical meanings.

The correlated elements of the grammatical opposition must posses common features & differential ones, i.e. one form must be unmarked, other forms must be marked by a certain morpheme.

"A grammatical category is a unity of a generalized grammatical meaning, with a set of paradigmatically correlated grammatical forms ".Professor Smirnitsky's Postulates of the Grammatical Category. Five postulates of the existence of grammatical categories. By this he defines grammatical category in a very convincing & exhausting way.

I. Any grammatical category must be represented by, at least, 2 grammatical forms. There're no languages in which you could find only one case form or one form of number. The minimal set of paradigmatically correlated forms is 2 forms.Category of case in English is represented by the opposition of 2 forms ( Common - Possessive ), Russian - 6 forms ( Падежи ).

II. No grammatical category can be represented by all the word forms of the word. If some grammatical meaning is inherent in all the word forms of the given word, we shall deal here not with a grammatical category but with lexico-grammatical category. Such is the Category of Gender in Russian. We can't change the noun according to the category of Gender, i.e. masculine, feminine, neuter.The set meanings of Gender are inherent in certain nouns. Some nouns belong to masculine gender, other - to feminine, and still other - neuter.

E.g. : дом, улица, небо

III. One word form may combine different grammatical categories. E.g. : the form " speaks " combines 5 categories ( grammatical meanings ) - tense, 3rd person, singular number, indicative mood, active voice.

IV. No word form can combine 2 categorial meanings ( grammatical meaning of the same category ) of 1 and the same category. You can not find singular and plural in one word form simultaneously.

E.g. : boys , boy

V. Every word form must represent at least one categorial form or belong to some grammatical category. There are no word forms without grammatical categories. In modern linguistics, it's generally accepted, that a grammatical category is represented by an opposeme of, at least, 2 forms. It follows from the theory workedout by linguist Nicolas Treubetskoy about binary opposition in Linguistics. He applied the opinion to phonology, but lateron he thought, that this method works very well in other spheres of Linguistics.Different parts of speech have different N. Of grammatical categories.

E.g. : the English verb is the most developed system from point of view of categories. Some think the verb has 6 grammatical categories, others &eth; 8 grammatical categories.








English noun has 2 categories ( number, case ). Adjective &eth; degree of comparison.


3. Charles Friese's theory of the classes of words.

Every language contains ______ of words. When describing them, we should analize whether one word separately or unite them into classes possessing more or less common features. Linguists make use of both the approaches. A dictionary usually describes individual words. Grammar mostly deals with clases of words, traditionaly called parts of speech. The term " part of speech " is conventional. The well-known linguist Shcherba Z.V., Professor Smirnitsky prefer to use lexico-grammatical categories "; Professor Blokh operates with the term " grammatical classes of words "; Charles Fries calls the same thing " positional classes "; Professor Ilyish, the linguists Heimovich & Rogovskaya speak about " lexico-grammatical classes of word ". Up to this day, there's no generalagreement among the grammarians as to the number of the parts of speech, especially contraversial is the problem of delimiting parts of speech оn the basis of some common principles.

The 1st to introduce words into classes was Aristotle, who lived in between 384 - 322 B.C. Being a founder of logic Aristotle equated the relation of ideas in human mind with the relation of word in speech and established grammatical categories in terms of logic. He introduced in Grammar the notion of " subject " and "predicate ". His criterion for descriminating between parts of was the ability of words to express the parts oflogical proposition, i.e. the subject, the predicate and the copula.

Accordingly, Aristotle established 3 parts of speech : the name, the verb and the conjunction. By the " name " he meant the word which can perform the function of the subject. The " verb " represented the predicate. And by the conjunction he denoted all the functional words, such as prepositions, articles, conjunctions, particles.

Aristotle teaching was later continued by other scholars.Still the confusion of Grammar with the categories of logic remained.2.In the history of the part of speech there have been different criteria, according to which the part of speech have been singled out. Fortunatov concidered the parts of speech to be the formalgrammatical classes. His classification was purely morphological. He divided all the words into changeble and unchangeble. To the first group he refered noun, verb, adjective.

Others were unchangeble.

Shakhmatove's classification followed the syntactical principle. It proved to be one-sided.

The principles , оn which classifications are usually based nowadays , are 3 in number: meaningformfunction.

The meaning of the words, belonging to the class of the noun. The abstract meaning has thingness ( or substance ). The meaning of thingness applies to the meaning of the noun and constitutes the meaning of the noun as part of speech. Similarly , the meaning of the verb as a part of speech is action or process. The general meaning of a part of speech is neither lexical nor grammatical, but it is connected with both and we call it lexico-grammatical meaning. In the classical theory of the part of speech a semantic feature was a leading criteria in establishing a part of speech. In the structural linguistics (Ferdinand de Sausur ) the semantic principle was ignored ( Charles Fries ). There were Friese's supporters in Soviet Linguistics as well ( Leontyev, Shapkin etc. ). Their delimiting the classes of words. Besides, the words of different parts of speech are distinguished through their morphological features, their forms, their morphemes. The second principle of delimiting parts of speech is _____ of form. Grammatical forms represented grammatical categories. Thus, the noun is characterized by the categories of number and case; the verb - by the categories of tense, mood, voice, aspect, person and number.

By function we mean the syntectical properties of a certain class of words, what part it plays in the sentence.

The noun is usually preceded by adjective, prepositions, pronouns, articles and is followed by the verb. We call it combinability.The most convenient for us is the classification of part of speech, proposed by Khaimovich and Rogovskaya. According to them, we single out a certain class of words. We must take into consideration the following principles of this classification : Its lexical-grammatical meaning.

Its morphological features :

its form-building

its word-building


Its function in the sentence.

In accordance with these principles, the following parts of speech are distinguished in Modern English:

1). Nouns; 2). Adjectives; 3). Pronouns; 4). Numerals; 5). Verbs; 6). Adverbs; 7). Adlinks(the category of state); 8). Modal words(perhaps, of course, certainly, evidently, etc.); 9). Prepositions; 10). Conjunctions; 11). Particles;

12). Interjections; 13). Articles; 14). Response words.

3. Charles Fries was a representative of the American Descriptive school. He applied only 1 principle in delimiting parts of speech - the principle of function. His classes of words can be hardly called parts of speech. He calls them "positional classes" that are established by the methods of distribution & substitution. His principle is synthetical. According to him, the speaker gets sygnals of common classes of word from the position, the word occupies in the sentence. The meaning of the word being unnecessary.

E.g.: Woggles ugged diggles.

The sygnals of structural meaning( thingness or action) are called by Fries "Formal classes". He doesn't deny the term "parts of speech". Further, he establishes the words, that are characterized by a similar set of positions, which enables him to refer certain words to this or that common class. For this purpose, he takes the minimal utterance( or frames).

Class 1 Cl. 3

Frame A: The concert was good.


Frame B: The cleark remembered the text.


Frame C: The team went there.

So, he established 4 classes of notional words & 15 classes of functional ones. He considered his classification to highly objective, because it is structural. Later оп - 64 classes of functional words He himself calls the classes - "positional classes of words". Parts of speech are subdivided further, they're objective to sub-catigo-rization. Nouns: common & proper; countable & uncountable; abstract nouns... Verbs: notional & functional;...


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