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Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

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Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

As a result, the onset of Polish troops in April 1919, Vilna was in the hands of the Polish civil administration headed by the Chief Commissariat of the Civil Government of the Eastern lands. Established conditions for the development of political life in the region. Naturally, it was not a spontaneous process. He managed and oversaw the Polish civil civilization.

Leading role in organizing social and political life of the region played Society Gard Kresevo (USC). Formally, the Society was organized in 1918 to protect the eastern lands of the Polish-born state. Since the foundation of an independent Poland Guard Kresevo extended its activities in the Bialystok district, Volyn, as well as in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Most active society manifested itself in the years 1918 - 1922. After the conclusion of the Riga peace, driving in Central Lithuania to Poland, elections to Parliament in 1922 aims for which the COMPANY, have been implemented. After 1922 the Society's work actually stops [1].

Society in Vilnius funded and supported by the Polish authorities. Society was intended to accelerate the process of social and political construction in the region, because it was thought that in this region did not have the conditions for independent social and political development. That is why, in effect, the lack of civil liberties, a large number of illiterate population, the lack of large public organizations in the entire region, the solution of this set of problems was transferred to USC.

USC arranged publication of the Polish press, initiated the creation of socio-economic organizations (agricultural, business, unions, rural youth, educational organizations), worked on the creation of public infrastructure Vilnius. Establish committees of People's Councils and cell movements of the national wing, allowing to work with many people in the region.

In the course of the campaign work on the territory of the region fell program of Polish political parties and movements. Dwell here and press the leading political parties in Poland. Members of the Constituent Sejm of Poland also came and spoke to residents of towns and villages in the region. Conveying to the audience with a program of movements and parties, they also urged local people to organize committees of political parties and movements.

Gradually drawn up governing structures of USC in the region. Thus, by May 1919 were formed 4 territorial district USC: Volyn Podlaska, Bialystok-Brest-Litovsk, Vilna and Kovensky. Vilensky district USC was founded more March 1, 1919, headed by Yu Narkovichem. Company has been a great outreach, based local committees USC. Much work was carried out in districts of Wieruszów, including Leeds. Oshmyaskom, Sventyanskom, Novogrudok. In this area, with the June 1, 1919 began to appear weekly Vilna land.

Until July 1920 the activities of the USC extended to 9 povets region. In Leeds county all activities conducted Grinevich in Vileika - M. Shostokuvna in Oshmyany - Martinkovsky, Sventyanskom - Kovalenko [2].

During the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 representatives of the Company have carried out relief troops, the creation of military units.

In March 1921 the activities covered by 7 USC povets Central Lithuania. Structural unit of the Society existed in Lida (last Brauman, 15 tsp.) Ashmyany (last V. Narkovsky, 57 tsp.) Sventyanah (last I. Drevinski, 11 tsp.) [3].

The most important political act of USC was the establishment of local administrations. Is most clearly discernible in the formation of People's Councils (Rad). In Vilnius, the action began in June 1919, when Sejmik in Vilna, was elected to Parliament Home Vilna and Navahrudak land. 26 June 1919 was elected to Parliament Grodno land. At the July joint meeting of representatives of these is pleased to announce that they will be joint action to accede to the regions they represent Poland [4].

In September 1919 in Vilnius held general elections in the People's Council (Rada). People's Councils were formed in all districts of Wieruszów [5].

Activities happy during the Polish-Soviet war was interrupted. However, in the autumn of 1920 their activities were restored.

Thus, the activities of the USC in Vilnius wore broad. Under the auspices of the Society formed the economic, social, cultural, political organization. Society is publishing the press, the general campaign. Great assistance it has provided local authorities to organize communes councils DISTRICT Sejmik.

On the territory of the eastern provinces have started to appear and representatives of political parties.

And in February 1920 in Vilna, was the Congress of the Polish People's Union (PNC) "Revival". At the Congress were elected governing bodies of the Union. Delegate of the Congress Party also took part in the congresses held in Warsaw, the Polish People's Party (PPP) "Emancipation" and "Piast".

In the first half of 1920 activities of the "Renaissance" has been concentrated mainly on the publication of the same name of the newspaper and some agitation. However, the union is practically not created in this period, its network of committees in the region [6].

Military action at some time slow the process of alliance formation in the region. However, after the signing of the Treaty of Riga in 1921 the situation changed radically. Now all political forces in Vilnius had been part of public education called Central Lithuania. And they had to struggle for influence in the region.

Public education "Central Lithuania" appeared on Oct. 9, 1920 g, after the occupation g.Vilno Polish troops. November 30 was a date for elections to the Seimas Vilensky, a body that was supposed to do, attach Lithuania to Poland or not. Elections were scheduled for January 8, 1922

"Central Lithuania" is a state area of 10 thousand square kilometers. km., a population of 530 thousand people. According to a 1920 national population of the region was as follows: the Poles - 70.6%, Lithuanians - 12.8%, Belarusians - 6%, Jews - 4%. By religion 86% of the population belongs to a Catholic, 8% - to the Orthodox, 4% professed Judaism.

The structure of public education included the territory Sventyanskogo and Ashmyany povets (total 29 communes), in which Belarusians predominated [7].

Education Central Lithuania opened the way for increased political activity. At the time of the proclamation of Central Lithuania, one of the most influential political blocs was Polish People's Union "Revival". PNC "Revival" quickly launched a network of cells throughout the Middle Lithuania. In late December 1920 in Sventyanskom their county employed 30, Vilensky and Oshmyany to 9. December 20, 1920 in Sventyanah was created povets Committee PNC "Revival".

13 - 15 February 1921 in Vilna, was the second Congress of the PNC "Revival". It drew about about 1.2 thousand participants. The congress was attended by the representatives of "Renaissance", as well as the political forces that advocated the legend status of territorial autonomy for Vilnius to Poland. It was the PPP Lithuania and Belarus (A. Zavshtot, Buiko) and the Polish democratic movement V. Abramovich. The Congress adopted rzolyutsiya, which confirmed earlier decisions PNC "Revival", in terms of autonomy of Vilnius, as well as land reform [8].

Parallel to the Vilnius laid the foundation of the new political forces close to the ideas of the TNG "Piast". September 8, 1921 was a congress of representatives of Central Lithuania, the supporters of software installations TNG "Piast". The Congress decided on the formation of a new political movement - the Polish People's Movement (PPM) of Vilna Earth, elected governing bodies. Until the end of 1921 Congress passed another 2 new movement (2 October and 13 November). They endorsed the program motion. The leader of the movement, was elected Ya Matsutkevich.

PAN Vilna on the position of the Earth was the inclusion of Vilnius as a province of Poland, without granting autonomy, but on the question of land reform - for the allotment of land to be compensated.

PAN Vilna Earth directly reflect the opinions of the TNG "Piast", as well as the PNC "Revival" - TNG "Liberation". However, the two organizations formally distinct from its founders, because were formally outside of Poland.

In connection with the upcoming elections to the Sejm Vilensky came intensification of political life in Central Lithuania. Decision of the authorities of Poland, the territory of which have been held elections was extended to two of the district: Lida and Braslavsky. Therefore, the main political blocs in Central Lithuania started its operations here and have begun to organize their own committees.

December 11-12 in Vilna was the third Congress of the PNC "Revival". It was attended by 1,500 representatives from all povets Central Lithuania. At the Congress of Deputies arrived TNG "Liberation", the PPP, the representatives of the Belarusian People's Committee, trade unions, youth organizations.

The Congress decided that the PNC "Revival" and the TNG "liberation" after the merger of Central Lithuania and Poland will become a unified national movement.

At the same time the association has made a split in the ranks of the PNC "Revival". Some figures "Revival" led by S. Mickiewicz argued for the unification of all the historical lands of Lithuania into one state. They advocated for the revival of the Lithuanian state and its federation with Poland. Similar ideas are also supported krayovtsy and representatives of the PPP Lithuania and Belarus. However, the embodiment of such ideas was impossible.

The split in the movement not to inflict great harm to the movement as a whole, although the county Braslav S. Mickiewicz has received support from figures PNS "Revival".

Official representatives of the PNC "Revival" supported by the majority, led by L. Khominskii. On the same basis were formed and lists for the election of the motion.

Intensified as NDP Vilna Earth. November 13, 1921 in Vilna, was a regular congress NDP Vilna Earth. It was confirmed the basic principles which were expressed earlier regarding the occurrence of Central Lithuania to Poland and land reform.

However, the greatest influence in the region had the Polish Central Electoral Committee (PTSIK), an organization which stood at positions close to the Polish right-wing political forces. Support to this Committee received endeki and Christian Democrats. Not played a small role and support unit of the Catholic Church. Given the fact that many minorities in the region were going to boycott the elections, PTSIK, who had a great support of the local Polish population, seriously expect to win.

Serious ambitions were at the Union of People's Councils. PPP Lithuania and Belarus was counting on the votes of workers, railway workers, part of the peasantry and the intelligentsia.

Ethnic minorities have not played any role in the election campaign, did not put them and their own electoral lists. Most of the minority did not participate in the elections [9].

Particularly negative attitude towards the elections took Lithuanians. Belarusians and Jews also were inactive, although not advocated a boycott, as the Lithuanians. In addition, lists of all political forces and was attended by representatives of Belarusian and Jewish origin.

Elections to the Sejm passed Jan. 8, 1922 electoral turnout was 64.4%.

In sum, throughout the Middle Lithuanian and in Leeds and Braslav districts of Wieruszów political parties and blocs were:

PTSIK - Polish Central Elections Committee - 89904; Union of People's Councils - 59518; PDS - The Polish national movement of Vilna land - 24378; PNC - Polish People's Union "Revival" - 20009; PPS - Polish Socialist Party of Lithuania and Belarus - 5496; Democratic Bloc -- 22668.

The victory had supporters of incorporation. This idea is supported by those who gave their votes for the candidates PTsIKa (36% of votes cast), SNA (23,8%), NDP Vilna land (9.8%). Together, these blocks have 84 seats in the Sejm.

Proponents of autonomy have significantly less support of voters. PNC "Revival" (group Khominskii and Mickiewicz) received 8.8% of the vote, Democratic Bloc - 9.1%, PPP Lieb - 2%. Altogether autonomists received 16 seats.

It should be noted that the number of seats are not fully reflect the percentage of the election results. Considered not voting at a general level, and within the constituencies. So, for example, the Democratic Bloc, despite a good overall result of the election (9% of votes), received only 4 seats. At the same time a group of GoB Mickiewicz's "Revival" and the PPP, focusing on the elections in Braslav county got together 6 seats [10].

After the elections, the greatest interest is not so much the political cards on the factions in the Sejm, as the question of the relationship between federalists and supporters of the inclusion of Poland in Vilnius.

By federalists were all left-wing faction, which is about 20 seats. At the same time, the right and the centrists were in favor of the reunification of Central Lithuania and Poland. In addition, many MPs and centrists argued for autonomy for the Central Lithuania, however, on the condition that she and the state of Lithuania with its capital in Kaunas will be in the area of direct influence of Warsaw. At the same time, it was more of a theoretical chance for autonomy. Thus, autonomists really could not take part in deciding the fate of Middle Lithuania.

February 20, 1922 Vilensky Sejm decided on joining the Central Lithuania to Poland. At the same time was elected a delegation of 20 deputies, which in Warsaw at the ceremonial meeting of the Constituent Seimas 24 March 1922 signed an "act of connecting Vilna land and Poland." Polish Sejm on the same day passed a law on adoption of state authority in the land by the Government of Vilna Poland. Delegation of the Vilna Sejm as a whole entered the Constituent Sejm of Poland [11].

Vilensky the Diet was dissolved March 28, 1922 All political forces of the former Central Lithuania is gradually merged into the Nationwide political parties and movements. Thus, the PNC "Revival" at its congress of March 4, 1922 has decided to join the movement of the structure of the TNG "Emancipation" (with the exception of Adam Mickiewicz). This decision also took into PTSIK, whose members moved into the Christian Democrats, the PAN Vilna land - in the TNG "Piast", PPP Lithuania and Belarus - in the PPP.

An election campaign in 1922 in Vilnius province continued. On the agenda was the election of the Polish Parliament.

The greatest influence in the region had TNG "Emancipation". The movement began to form structure even during the election campaign for elections to the Seimas Vilensky.

24-25 June 1922 in Vilna, Congress passed the electoral bloc TNG "Emancipation" and "Rebirth", which brought together 420 delegates representing Novogrudok and Vilna province. The congress approved the merger of the TNG "Emancipation" and PNC "Revival". It was agreed in all districts to set their own candidates. Among the slogans that have used the movement in the campaign, a special place was given to land reform in the interests of local people, right of the Belarusian population to develop education and culture in their native language.

In addition, the Congress decided to organize on the basis of the Vilna Committee TNG "Liberation" Regional Committee of the TNG "liberation" of the Vilna and Novogrudok provinces [12]. Meetings with candidates were held throughout the region. Publication of election program block in the Belarusian language, as well as winning several court cases for local residents, Belarusians, with the help of the TNG "Liberation" and enhanced his popularity. This resulted in an increase in membership and contributions, respectively. During the reporting period, cash received about 1 million marks, which allowed regularly publish regional press and other campaign literature.

Electoral Bloc determined the candidates for all electoral districts and the eastern provinces, according to its leaders, expected to earn 5.6 seats, including two mandates in Sventyanskom, two - in Leeds, one or two - in Novogrudok paviet.

In the district number 63 (city of Vilna and county) motion for nominations for deputy Kostyalkovskogo M., J. Adamovich, A. Yurkoytya.


1. Rzeczypospolitej/Z.Tomczonek. – Bialystok, 1996. – S. 52

2. Архив новых актов (ААN). – TSK. – S. 372. Отчет отдела ОСК о деятельности за 1919 г. – k. 24 – 26.

3. Литовский центральный государственный архив (LCVA). – Ф. 63. – Оп. 1. – Д. 73. Материалы заседания Свентянского сеймика (1919 – 1923 гг.). – Л. 2 – 4

4. ААN. – TSK. – S. 372. Отчет отдела ОСК о деятельности за 1919 г. – K. 24 – 25.

5. Tomczonek, Z. Ruch ludowy na kresach pόłnocno – wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej/Z.Tomczonek. – Bialystok, 1996. – S. 63

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