Table of contents
Chapter 1. What is the group and why people unite in groups? 3
Chapter 2. Types of groups. 4
Chapter 3. Formation of group and its basic characteristics. 6
Chapter 4. Potential of group and its productivity. 13
The conclusion 18
The literature list 20
People live and work in groups. 5 billion 400 million the persons occupying our planet, form more than 200 states in which is 20 million economic organisations and hundred millions various groups. In the big organisation individuality of the person is dissolved in a lump of people. Other business in group (a brigade, department, office, etc.). Here everyone with the abilities, lacks, acts clearly. Owing to features of group in it there are processes which make essential impact on behaviour of the person in the organisation. The first has paid to this attention of Elton of Mayo during the known experiments in Hotorne. The further researches in the given direction have allowed to draw the important conclusions. First, the group takes a key place in the organisation. On the one hand, it the natural form of association of individuals; with another a structural element for organisation construction. Secondly, the group has positive influence not only on the separate worker, helping it is better to learn itself, to get new skills, to satisfy various social requirements; but also on all organisation, promoting its unity, stability, occurrence of new ideas, perfection of methods of decision-making and the control. Processes owing to which all it occurs, Elton of Mayo and Kurt Levin named Group dynamics recognising a key role of group dynamics in the organizational behaviour, different scientists differently treat the maintenance of this concept. One put in it formation of group and management of it. Others consider that it represents a set the technician and techniques of type of group therapy, role training, etc. The third at some discrepancy in separate details adhere to the concept of Eltona of Mayo and Kurta Levin according to which group dynamics is considered from the point of view of the internal nature of group, their characteristics and interaction in them individuals. Such sight at group dynamics allows to approach to its studying as it covers a wide range of questions more deeply. The author of the given work puts before itself aim to consider most important of them.
Chapter 1. What is the group and why people unite in groups?
The answer to the first part of a question is obvious: he/she is some persons, small meeting of people. Whether however it is really possible to name any small association of people group? The majority of researchers assert that for group it is necessary, first, that its members co-operated and, secondly, that they felt the participation with each other. These are two or more persons who co-operate with each other, influence against each other and perceive itself as we, i.e. as community to which they belong. Such understanding of group in many respects explains the second part of a question. We will consider basic elements of structure of concept of group: interaction and an accessory. Interaction assumes action of individuals on the basis of overall aims and interests. If they are not present, there is no also a group. A following condition of interaction is the similar relation of members of group to these purposes and interests. Individual Х will co-operate with the individual at if at that and at another installations in value coincide. Further. That the person had a desire to establish connection with other people, it should have in the long term possibility to receive as a result of interaction certain moral or material compensation. The deep sense is put and in the second element of structure of concept of group. The feeling of an accessory is necessary for the person to realise its natural aspiration to be with other people, to compare itself to them and to receive their estimation itself, respect and a recognition. The accessory to group means also potential possibility for the individual to have reliable protection. Members of one group will intercede the friend for the friend and at a meeting with hooligans in the street, and at conversation with the heads more likely, defending group interests. At last, the accessory to group, for example, to any club or a trade union provides to the person certain position in a society, gives it the power and possibilities for achievement of specific goals. Thus, people unite in groups to satisfy the requirements in Dialogue. Power strengthening Reception of the certain public status achievement of social, economic and other purposes.
Chapter 2. Types of groups
There are different criteria on which classify groups. For example, depending on character of joint activity they can be industrial, educational, family, etc.; depending on duration and existence constant or time etc. However the majority of scientists in a basis of typology of groups take the most general criterion a principle of their creation. One groups are created directive at will of a management of the organisation for performance of its purposes, others voluntary workers for satisfaction of the various requirements. The first name formal, the second the informal. Formal groups happen two types: administrative and operative. The groups provided by organizational structure concern the administrative: departments, sites etc. the operative include workers and employees who together carry out any task or the project. The command concerns such type, for example. Informal groups also share on two kinds: Groups on interests and groups on the basis of friendship. As an example of the first type associations of people on the basis of aspiration to self-development, increase of the professional skill or collectors can serve. A source of formation of groups of the second type are liking to each other and similarity of personal values and installations. Formal and informal groups have much in common. First, both those, and others pass similar stages of development. They have hierarchies, leaders, roles, norms (rule), the status, the size. Thirdly, group dynamics of those and others are peculiar characteristics are identical: unity and conflicts. At the same time between them exists basic distinctions. As most important of them John V. Njustrom and Kate Devis consider the following. Distinctions of formal and informal groups. The basis for comparison Informal group Formal group:
General mutual relations Informal Official,
Basic concepts the Power and a policy of the Right and a duty,
Basic attention to the Person of the Post,
Source of the power Proceeds from group,
Management to behaviour of Norm of the Rule,
Source of management of the Sanction Compensation and the penalty Is delegated by a management.
Apparently from the table, in informal groups the dominant role is played by members of groups and their mutual relation, in formal - official roles in terms of the official rights and duties of individuals. The informal power, thus, addresses to the person as to the person and, hence, has personal character; the formal as to the official, it is established officially. This the leader of informal group receives the power from fellow workers, formal from an organisation management. The behaviour in informal group is regulated by group sanctions, in the formal Rules and duty regulations. At last group sanctions serve in informal group as influence methods on management of behaviour, in formal Rewardings and penalties.
All these distinctions promote creation in informal groups of special interpersonal relations which make at times stronger impact on behaviour of workers, than the administrative power. Therefore, though informal groups are created not at will of the management, each manager should reckon with them. How informal groups with formal co-operate, efficiency of the organisation depends finally. Informal groups have many the advantages. They facilitate administrative loading of management: if members of such group divide the organisation purposes carry out the control. Informal groups promote cooperation and cooperation, reception of satisfaction from work, serve some kind of the valve for an exit of emotions of workers, improve communications in the organisation. Use of all these possibilities for increase of efficiency of the organisation? A direct duty of management. Exist a number of the rules checked up in practice which each manager should adhere in the work with informal groups.
Their essence is reduced to, that:
1. To recognise existence of informal group and to realise that its suppression will cause organisation easing.
2. To listen to opinions of members and leaders of informal groups, that the nobility their mood.
3. Before accepting any actions, to count their possible consequences for informal group.
4. For easing of resistance to changes in the organisation from outside informal group to involve its members in acceptance of administrative decisions.
5. In due time to give out to workers the exact information, interfering with that to distribution of hearings.
Chapter 3. Formation of group and its basic characteristics
In the literature there are some models of formation of group, and in each of them stages of its life cycle are called differently. For example, James L.Gibson, John Ivantsevich and James H. Donneli - younger consider that each group passes in the development through stages: a mutual recognition, dialogue and decision-making, motivation and efficiency, the control and the organisation. According to L. V. Kartashovoj, Т. V. Nikonovoj and Т. O. Solomanidinoj, such stages five: an initial stage of formation, a stage of the intragroup conflict, maintenance of unity of group, a stage of the highest working capacity and a final stage (for time groups). Е. G. Moll, as well as the American scientists, allocates also 4 stages: group formation, a stage a storm and a storm, an execution stage. A lack of all these definitions is their some randomness, absence of methodological criterion. At the heart of author's model the concept based on processes which define features of development of each group lies. These processes, in the conventional opinion of psychologists, are that: adaptation, identification, integration and communications. Adaptation characterises the initial stage of formation of group when its members learn and accept each other, form problems, develop norms of behaviour when start to be shown structure, hierarchy, the status, roles, leadership. Identification is connected with formation of feeling of an accessory of the individual to group. This process proceeds at three levels: the emotional as ability to empathize.
How ability to become on the point of view of other person or all group and behavioural? As aspiration to obey to developing group norms. Integration marks itself a stage when the race for power in group is already finished, group norms, roles of everyone that is when association of individuals has turned to individual collective are finalised. Integration leads to transformation of collective into the self-regulated social organism well adapted for in common-individual activity. For the given stage of development of group following signs are characteristic: the purposes are accurately designated; compatibility of individuals in group is reached; the leader of group has proved the right to leadership in practice; the group successfully carries out the problems put before it; the size of group allows to know opinion of its each member and to estimate it. People feel the accessory to group, hang together, overcoming in common difficulties and solving group problems. Conflicts and the stresses shown at the beginning it is especially frequent and painful, arise all less often and are resolved in the most sparing ways with participation of all group. An indicator of efficiency of integration is degree of unity of group. The highest unity is inherent in group at a step of its maturity. Group disintegration begins with dissociation display between its members. Thus, if to follow logic of development of group and those processes which accompany it, it is possible to allocate following stages:
Thus it is necessary to notice that these stages are not the forms of evolution of group isolated from each other. They only specify in dominating tendencies which define its this or that life cycle. In a life all is more difficult. Happens that processes and adaptations, both identifications, and integration occur simultaneously.
And happens and so that, having reached integration level, the group passes to lower step because in it there was a new leader or its problems have changed. As to communications process it accompanies group development at all its stages. Communications are means with which help members of group co-operate, communicate, build the relations, form group characteristics, operate the behaviour. Therefore about it we will talk separately. Generalising told, it is possible to present schematically model of formation and group development.
According to this model we will consider the basic characteristics of group and potential end results of its activity. Group structure. Each group has the structure. It depends on type of group, its size and structure, mutual relations and norms in it, the status and a role of each member of group. The size and group structure. One of the important factors who in many respects defines efficiency of group, its size is. Practice shows that the groups consisting of 5-9 persons appear the most productive. Such number allows to consider, first, at decision-making different opinions, secondly, creates a transparency at which the contribution of everyone is well visible and, thirdly, provides favorable conditions for interaction and unity. Efficiency of group depends also on its structure. Researches have confirmed such law: than more than the general signs at group (on age, qualification, sights etc.) As that its members more fruitfully work, faster they find that correct decisions of questions which before them arise. At the same time group heterogeneity on what or to a sign under certain conditions can be a source of conflicts. The status. It is accepted to understand a place of the person as the status in a society or group. Distinguish are formal also the informal status. Formal it is defined by a post, an official rank. For example, the professor or the winner of competition? The best by a trade?; the informal? Personal qualities of the person and a recognition people of these qualities. If the established group status corresponds to expectations of the person, the person recognises group norms and behaves according to them if is not present, between the person and group there is a conflict role a role. It is a way or model of behaviour of the person in this or that situation. Each member of group carries out certain roles which depend on its status. Complexity of management of organizational behaviour here consists that in a life people simultaneously carry out some roles. The person at the same time can be the head subordinated, a companion, the parent etc. In each role from it expect certain behaviour. When the member of group does not justify group expectations, there is a role conflict. There are different role conflicts:
1. The conflict the person - a role. It arises when the role requirement breaks the basic values of the individual or its requirement. For example, the person can leave group if its representations about morals or justice disperse from group opinion.
2. The conflict in a role. Such conflict appears when the person appears as though between the devil and the deep sea. On the one hand, for example, the head of group on office hierarchy belongs to the heads and should behave according to position; with another, it the member of group also wishes to keep with it friendly relations.
3. The conflict between roles. In its basis contradictions between expectations from those roles which are carried out by the person lie. In particular, the rallied group which purposes do not coincide with the purposes of the formal organisation, can become the reason of the interrole conflict for its members.
Researches show what to avoid role conflicts difficultly. However it is possible to minimise their negative influence on new groups. For this purpose it is necessary to know the reasons of occurrence of contradictions and in due time to interfere with process of their development. Norms. It is accepted to understand the conventional standards which have developed in group as a result of long interaction of its members as group norms. Unlike role expectations which are turned to separate people, norms are turned at once to all members of group. Both formal, and informal groups can have various hand-written or unwritten norms. One of them are formalized in various written documents. Others officially do not appear, nevertheless become known to all members of group. And though they have informal character, their influence on mutual relations in group and efficiency of its work often appears more strongly written norms.
The basic norms can be reduced to several types:
What define norms of activity, its productivity, quality, terms of performance of tasks etc.
Concern the first type. To the second the norms connected with distribution of resources. They regulate an order of assignment for wages, encouragements, sequence of granting of privileges and privileges etc.
To the third the norms, concerning informal social agreements. The rules regulating display of professional or group solidarity, admissible limits of sanctions to separate members of group, norm of group loyalty etc.
Here enter. The fourth type is formed by organizational norms. It can be requirements to clothes of the workers, shown for maintenance of certain image of firm, or standards at negotiating etc. Existence of norms is dictated by a problem of achievement of the purposes of group. Association of efforts of members of group demands some compulsion. Necessity of such compulsion is shown the more strongly, than the requirement for uniformity of behaviour is more sharply felt at the decision of questions of joint activity of group. Value of norms is difficult for overestimating. First, they promote predictability of behaviour of members of groups, reduction of quantity of interpersonal problems and conflicts. Secondly, norms allow people to define the value of the group distinguishing it others, and on this basis to construct model of own behaviour. Thirdly, influence formation of unity of group unity. The unity concept has great value for understanding of a role of group in the organisation. This role can be either positive, or negative, all depends on that, the group purposes coincide with the purposes of the organisation or not. In the first case members of group cultivate the best business and moral qualities, are proud of an accessory to the collective. All it together promotes that arising problems dare efficiently, creatively, taking into account the general opinion.
In the second case on the first place in a group life intergroup conflicts act. Obshche-proizvodstvennye problems pale into insignificance. Unity of such group eventually collapses. However while it does not happen, the group makes negative impact on behaviour of all organisation. The manager should know how to operate processes which rally people in group, and depending on a unity orientation to apply those or other measures of influence. There are various techniques which allow to estimate quantitatively degree of unity and its orientation. One of them is offered R. S. Vajsmanom. Its essence consists in the following. The set from twenty personal qualities closely connected with business dialogue is given to members of collective. Among these qualities? The constancy, endurance, initiative, sociability, sense of duty, knowledge of the possibilities, persistence, loyalty to group norms, sincerity, etc. they should choose five qualities which, in their opinion, are necessary for productive work and which are cultivated in group From this set. Comparison of repetitions of separate qualities to a total sum of elections allows to deduce factor tsennostno-orientatsionnogo unities of group. Depending on this factor the manager can undertake actions or on unity strengthening, or on its destruction. German scientists V.Zigert and L.Lang make for this purpose following recommendations.
For unity strengthening:
1. Help group to test the general success;
2. Try to strengthen trust of members of group to each other and first of all to the leader;
3. Develop feeling of an accessory to group as sensation of a certain feature, strengthen this feeling, carrying out joint group actions, showing a more potential, new possibilities in the decision of the problems, opening in teamwork;
4. Take care of that the accessory to group delivered pleasure, answered motivation to an accessory, respect, self-esteem, prestige;
5. Support belief of group in a reality of the decision of tasks in view. For unity destruction:
1. In the form of drama show to group hopelessness of its activity;
2. Show to group impossibility of achievement of the purposes put by it;
3. Sow mistrust between people and first of all to the leader of group;
4. Form the dissenting subgroups, stimulate flight from group, encourage deserters, and is better. Transform into the deserter of the leader of group;
5. Make feeling of an accessory to group with feeling weariness, discontent;
6. Eliminate the leader by its moving on other place of work. To the manager can be useful and councils of the American scientists which recommend:
For unity strengthening:
1. To make group it is less;
2. To encourage the consent with the group purposes;
3. To stimulate competition to other groups;
4. To give out compensation to all group, instead of its separate members;
5. If it is necessary, to isolate group from negative influence of other workers. For unity destruction:
1. To make group it is more;
2. To disband group;
3. To give out compensations not to all group, and its separate members;
4. To encourage disagreement with group problems;
5. Not to isolate group. Also recommendations of domestic scientist N. Vlasovoj, which in the second volume of the three-volume edition at last are worthy. Also you will wake up the boss results 22 rules of management of group:
1. Estimate potential possibilities of people and distribute between them role positions in group;
2. Designate a place and value of each member of group in the decision of the general problem;
3. Put before group an overall aim, without having forgotten to convince everyone, what an overall aim. It and its personal purpose;
4. Distribute duties, responsibility, the rights, the power and means, having developed competent duty regulations and having balanced resources;
5. Discuss the first difficulties with orientation to revealing of their reasons;
6. Suggest group to qualify the activity constantly;
7. Stabilise, rally group, create a favorable climate, and then simulate crisis that people have learnt to resolve contradictions and conflicts (a problem demanding time, resources, confidence of approachibility of expected results and participation small, but the qualified group of psychology.
8. Develop collective decision-making. Authorship appropriate to group, however in group give due to everyone depending on its contribution;
9. Develop constant criteria of an assessment of works and follow them;
10. Conduct collective and public analysis of contradictions;
11. Support in group the main values: respect for everyone, an estimation under the contribution, orientation on positive in the person, publicity, democratic character, the account of specific features;
12. Open sense and the importance of work, a place and value of everyone in a common cause;
13. Decentralize the power and give full independence to all members of group (but do not forget about what it was told in item 4);
14. Encourage the initiative, exclude practice of search guilty. It is important to find the reasons and ways of elimination of errors;
15. Do not forget about constant improvement of professional skill and sensation of prospect for everyone;
16. All group problems resolve in common and publicly;
17. Give the constant information on achievements of everyone;
18. To all members of group grant the right freely to give any information, to express any opinions or doubts concerning any discussed question;
19. Appoint one member of group to a role the lawyer of a devil - the person who is protecting obviously wrong business or engaged pettifogging, discrepancies, doubtful positions, the errors, criticising made decisions from the various points of view. It helps to accept faster correct, for all comprehensible and comprehensively well-founded decision;
20. Listen to the various points of view and criticism also it is quiet, as well as that coincides with your point of view;
21. Separate efforts on generating of ideas from their estimation. At first collect all offers, and then discuss pluses and minuses of each of them.
Chapter 4. Potential of group and its productivity
Formation of potential of group is influenced by all its basic characteristics. But the special place among them is occupied with group norms. They are a core of all processes of group dynamics and directly are connected with productivity of potential both the group, and its each member and all organisation. The researches spent approximately at the same time by V. M. Bekhterev in Russia and E. Mejo in the USA, have allowed them to come to identical conclusions. It appears, it is easier to person to work, if the group which member it is, supports it and waits from it for good results. Efficiency of group considerably increases in that case at the expense of increase of individual productivity. Moreover, the group norm of productivity can increase several times if results of work of everyone influence success of the others and depend on their general success. E. Majo were explained by this phenomenon to what norms promote creation of atmosphere which not only defines behaviour of everyone who considers group the, but also strengthens display so-called effect when the general productivity in collective develops under the formula or 2+2 = 5, or 2+2 = 3. Positive or negative character of influence of this informal structure on productivity depends on variety of factors. J. D. Krasovsky divides them on two groups: the cores and variables. We them will name qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative concern:
1. Professional groups, indicators are interchangeability, complementarity;
2. The moral and psychological unity shown in norms of mutual aid;
3. Style of the leader J. D. Krasovsky includes in group of quantitative factors:
1. Group level of claims, that is mood of workers on achievement intermediate and end results;
2. Qualifying potential, sufficient for realisation of total and off-schedule indicators;
3. Requirements to an end result which defines group work;
4. An openness of assessments of works of group from outside the head, especially in situations of intergroup rivalry;
6. Intragroup interpersonal communications;
7. Time of existence of group;
8. Group norm of productivity.
Each of the listed factors in own way is shown at influence of informal structure of interpersonal relations on productivity of group depending on the positive or negative orientation. Thus the factor which will organise, focuses influence of all components, the group norm is. It is confirmed with F. Borodina's researches which have been spent by them on the basis of numerous situations. One of them is resulted in their book? Attention: the conflict in design office in information department there was a group of translators (5 persons). It worked well, exceeded norm. The head defined work total amount, and translators distributed it among themselves, helping each other. In the end of every week head held group meeting, estimated work of everyone and informed on work forthcoming week.
Meetings passed is live. Translators offered an additional material to discussion. But in group there was one translator who had no enough experience and qualifications that is why all to it helped when in it there was a necessity. It is it irritated a little, but it was grateful to all for the help. And here once at traditional meeting she has offered the big series of articles containing a material which was extremely necessary for design office for transfer. The head has suggested it to be accepted immediately to transfers of these articles, having postponed that it translated. It, without feeling sorry for forces and time, sat all the days long and evenings, working even in the days off. The first transfers have helped designers to promote essentially in workings out. Its transfers have appeared quality, the work volume was considerably exceeded by what was in group.
A management of design office and the head of department were very happy with its work and have highly appreciated the initiative. It began to work independently. In two months the relation to the translator from outside employees has sharply changed. The head of department could not understand that has occurred. It worked in a separate office but when came into a room to translators, saw that it sits with tear-stained eyes, and in a room the burdensome silence hangs. Inquiries gave nothing: she referred to personal circumstances, and the others shrugged shoulders. The true reason from the head hid, and he felt it. Then he has decided to talk to it. It was found out that translators at first did not approve its initiatives, and then hairdresses, cosmetics, clothes have started to exchange at its presence caustic remarks concerning appearance. Then on it have some times palmed off incorrect idioms translations. And then began accuse her of a careerism openly. But it worked still qualitatively and much, and the head calmed her that all will change for the better. However the situation developed to the worst.
Besides the total amount of transfers in group began to decrease. The group has started to behave in a pointed manner: at traditional weekly meetings all sat silently and waited for instructions from the head. It began to show them claims, has demanded to stop obstruction of initiatives, but has come across deaf spiteful silence. Then it has replaced the initiative translator in other room. Her have left alone, but the volume of transfers was still reduced, and then stabilised at lower level, than several months ago. The head criticised group and held up as an example the initiative of that working woman which they have rejected. Translators answered with resolute and amicable repulse, appealing to existing norms of transfer. - there are specifications, we on them and work. The group became uncontrollable. Then the head has achieved revision of awards for an overfulfillment of norms and for quality of transfers. The result has appeared unexpected: four translators have submitted a resignation.
After a while the head remained with one initiative translator. This situation opens intragroup relations from the different parties. It shows, first, that industrial groups are formed on the basis of the general for all members of norm of productivity and break up as a result of nonacceptance of this norm. Secondly, in such groups there are defining roles, statuses, at everyone the culture of behaviour, the requirements to members of group, the sanctions in relation to them, and especially to those who drops out of it, the claims to a management. The group together with the leader protects itself from encroachments on developed interpersonal relations. Thirdly, the group norm of productivity because in organizational management it is the weak spot becomes the basic weapon of struggle against a management. The group is ready to go on a victim for the sake of maintenance of the status, hoping besides to achieve and other advantages. If it does not occur, the group can go on extreme measures: entirely will leave. In the fourth, each head of group should build with workers of the relation how it is demanded by law of interpersonal business dialogue.
However it was considered by the head of department of the information. It has admitted variety of errors:
1. Has made administrative decisions, without reckoning with opinion of group;
2. Has answered a call of the initiative employee, but has looked through reaction of group to this call;
3. Opposed to its group and has not understood, as well as why business relations have regenerated in the interpersonal;
4. Has transplanted it in a separate room and has received the formal. The relation of translators to work: completely;
5. At last, has definitively destroyed all relations when has achieved revision of bonus system.
In the conclusion it is possible to draw some conclusions and to formulate ten restrictions which disturb to disclosing of potential of group and its productivity:
1. Unfitness of the head its inability on the personal qualities to rally employees, to inspire them on effective working methods.
2. Not qualified employees a typical lack imbalance of functions of the workers, an inadequate combination of professional and human qualities. For example, Vudkok and Frensis offer interesting enough distribution of office roles according to which in each working group should be idea men the directing, the planning, carrying out a role the deterrent and a little executors. The combination of roles depends on specificity of the collective, thus one worker can combine a little from the listed roles.
3. Not constructive climate. It is characterized by absence at a command of fidelity to problems, there is no high degree of mutual support in a combination to care of the blessing of each employee.
4. An illegibility of the purposes. The insufficient coordination of the personal and collective purposes, inability of a management and the personnel to the compromise. Authors underline necessity of periodic updating of objects in view, differently members of collective lose representation about prospects of the activity.
5. Low results of work. It is meant that the collective should no on reached, should show aggressiveness in achievement of the significant purposes that promotes a high self-estimation of employees, growth of personal professionalism.
6. An inefficiency of methods of work. Value of the correct organisation of gathering and granting of the information, acceptance of correct and timely decisions is underlined.
7. Shortage of an openness and confrontation presence. Necessity of free criticism, discussion strong and weaknesses of the done work, existing disagreements without false fear to be misunderstood is marked, to break business etiquette, to cause the conflict. However in practice it is exigeant, or special preparation of the personnel and the head is required.
8. Insufficient professionalism and low culture of employees. Desire to have in collective of strong employees with high level of individual abilities quite clearly. It is possible to consider correct the point of view according to which the developed employee should be vigorous, be able to operate the emotions, ready to be open to state the opinion, to possess ability to change the point of view under the influence of arguments, instead of forces, it is good to state the opinion.
9. And 10. Low creative abilities of the personnel and not constructive relations with other collectives. Last two obstacles in a way of development of collective are axiomatic and do not require the comment.
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